User: Password:
Subscribe / Log in / New account Weekly Edition for March 29, 2012

ZeroMQ and Crossroads I/O: Forking over trademarks

By Jake Edge
March 28, 2012

Trademarks and free software projects have something of a troubled history. On one hand, a trademark can protect the project from others using the name but offering sub-standard—or malicious—versions of the software. On the other, whoever holds the trademark also holds much of the power over the project as a whole. That can lead to conflicts, which is what we are seeing in a recent fork of the ZeroMQ (aka 0MQ or ØMQ) project.

ZeroMQ is a high-performance asynchronous messaging system that is based on BSD sockets. Two of the developers working on the project, Martin Sustrik and Martin Lucina, wrote about ZeroMQ for LWN in January 2010. Sustrik is the chief architect of ZeroMQ and, up until recently, served as the de facto "benevolent dictator" for the project, while Lucina has been working on the project since late 2009. On March 15, the two of them announced a fork of the LGPLv3-licensed ZeroMQ code as Crossroads I/O version 1.0.0.

The ZeroMQ trademarks

There were two main reasons cited for the fork in that announcement, but based on an email exchange with Sustrik and Lucina, the trademark issue is clearly paramount, at least for Sustrik. The trademark is held by iMatix Corporation which funded the early development of ZeroMQ. That trademark is governed by policy that essentially gives iMatix full control over how the names (ZeroMQ, 0MQ, ØMQ, and zmq) can be used.

That worries Sustrik for a couple of reasons. He believes that the underlying protocols for ZeroMQ should be standardized via the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF), but that is not something that is easily done using volunteers:

Consider just the trivial case of standardisation of underlying protocols in IETF. The protocol developers should meet at IETF meetings, with average costs being some $4000 per developer and year. It's definitely not a volunteer activity. Same need for funding applies to large-scale testing, hardware implementation etc.

His solution to the funding problem is to allow companies to make money by releasing modified versions, plugins, and extensions that can use the ZeroMQ name, which is something he says the current policy does not allow:

Here the trademark policy comes into the picture. People can technically do this stuff but cannot link its name back to 0MQ. You cannot create "Foobar Enterprise 0MQ" in the way that Red Hat have created "RH Enterprise *Linux*". You cannot write an extension and release it as "0MQ toaster control unit". Etc.

Given that trademarks are at the center of the disagreement, it is ironic that the trademark policy was created at Sustrik's request in May 2011. In a message on the zeromq-dev mailing list, iMatix CEO Pieter Hintjens noted that he created a policy and asked for feedback. There were no major complaints about the policy in that thread, but a suggestion from Sustrik that the trademarks be handed to a foundation (like Software in the Public Interest, which holds the Debian trademark) was not something that Hintjens was interested in:

To be honest, the trademarks represent non-trivial value to iMatix and it would be hard to literally give them away. This is not really an option, though it's one I've considered. There would have to be compelling reasons (e.g. real dysfunction that puts the community at risk), and it'd have to include the domain names.

But Sustrik is concerned that some day the trademarks could fall into "hostile" hands, which could essentially take control of various ZeroMQ-related projects (like the language bindings for roughly 30 languages) by asserting a different trademark policy. That also may make it difficult for ZeroMQ to attract companies to work on the project: "If I was a commercial entity I would be hesitant about investing in such a project". One of the early goals for Crossroads I/O is to find a "neutral entity" to control the trademark by the end of 2012. Until then, the policy states: "'Crossroads I/O' is trademark of Martin Sustrik. Martin Sustrik grants everyone the right to use the trademark with products related to Crossroads I/O (packages, plugins, extensions, tools and similar)."

Development process changes

Since a trademark owner can decide what gets to be called "ZeroMQ", it can also make fairly sweeping decisions about how the project is governed and released. According to Sustrik, after the 3.1.0 beta release, he was "explicitly prohibited to use [the] ZeroMQ trademark, which gives me no other chance than to fork". That prohibition came in a private message from Hintjens, he said. Around the same time, Hintjens posted a proposal for maintenance of libzmq (the heart of ZeroMQ) that makes no mention of a single maintainer, which is the role that Sustrik thought he had been filling.

In a Google+ posting (which Lucina called an "objective writeup"), Ian Barber pointed to a problem that may have been part of what led to the new development process: "Martin Sustrik was effectively a bottleneck for getting improvements into core, and was clearly being pulled multiple directions on features and functionality in the project".

As might be guessed, Hintjens has a somewhat different view from that of Sustrik and Lucina. In an email exchange, he noted that Sustrik was "in danger of burning out", which is part of what led to the changes. In addition, he doesn't see the trademark policy as a problem:

Read that "hostile trademark policy". What it really says is, "iMatix will use its trademarks to ensure that only work done by the 0MQ community can call itself 0MQ". Martin Sustrik asked me to draft it, I did, he liked it, and we used it.

According to Hintjens, Sustrik and Lucina "happily ignored about a year of consensus on process, and unilaterally decided to take back control over stable releases" when they made the 3.1 release. That didn't sit well with some of the other contributors to ZeroMQ, which is what led to codifying the process and, ultimately, the fork.

The new process (scroll down to "Contributing to libzmq") is more wide open than that of most free software development projects. Anyone can fork the Github repository, make changes, and request a pull into the mainline. The maintainers are only meant to enforce process, ensure that the test cases pass, and are not allowed to impose their opinions on the quality of the code or feature. If others in the community are not happy with a particular patch, they are supposed to make another patch that fixes or reverts it—the maintainers are just there to apply it. The underlying assumption is that the community members will find and fix problems quickly by getting those changes in front of them sooner.

Barber calls the process "incredibly open", in fact, more open than he is comfortable with, but it has worked well so far:

That said, there hasn't been a stable release rolled under the current process yet and whether it'll be a usable long-term model remains to be seen - but the plus side is that if it does work, it'll definitely scale. It is, in a large way, an experiment, to draw in more code, and more ideas and I respect the thinking behind that.

Crossroads I/O is going to use the more common "benevolent dictator" model, with Sustrik in that role. Barber says that makes sense, because it is a proven model for open source development, but he is concerned that Crossroads will hit the same problems that ZeroMQ ran into. He also notes that while Sustrik and Lucina have both contributed a great deal to ZeroMQ, they are far from the only contributors to the project. It's not clear, at least yet, if others from ZeroMQ will start working on Crossroads I/O, nor whether the language binding authors will support both projects. That leaves users in a bit of a quandary, he said.

In any case, the new process installed by Hintjens is something of an experiment: "We will try it for a while and if it proves broken, we will fix the breakage and continue to improve it." But that experiment, coupled with what Sustrik sees as a restrictive trademark policy, is enough to cause the fork. What remains to be seen is if Sustrik and Lucina can build enough of a community to continue with their plans.

It is, at least in some sense, a friendly fork. Hintjens greeted the Crossroads I/O announcement with: "Congratulations on this, guys. It's nice to see the LGPL in action." Based on the emails from Hintjens, Sustrik, and Lucina, there was certainly some initial hostility and hurt feelings because of the fork, but, in the end, both sides seem to wish the other well. The two code bases share the same license, so there is no reason that patches cannot flow between them.

Hintjens noted that some may criticize the fork because it will split the community, but he strongly defended Crossroads I/O for a number of reasons. For one, he sees it as a place to do more experimental work, while ZeroMQ focuses on stability. He is also interested in seeing which of the two development models works out better over the long run. It will also provide a choice of free solutions for users, he said.

This fork, like most, comes out of a difference in philosophies between two sub-groups of the project. Unlike other forks, though, it doesn't come about because of license disagreements. It is interesting for another reason, however, as it serves as a reminder that a trademark holder can exercise a great deal of control over a project. Since the owner of the trademark can effectively decide what gets to be called by that name, they can override the wishes of longtime developers.

From all appearances, much of the ZeroMQ community is not upset with the changes or the fork. But most also seem to be keeping an eye on what Crossroads I/O is up to. If Sustrik and Lucina can make the benevolent dictator model produce a better messaging library than the more open ZeroMQ model does, there may be a shift toward Crossroads. By taking the trademark question off the table with a more liberal policy, Crossroads may attract some of the companies that Sustrik worries are put off by the ZeroMQ policy. That remains to be seen, of course, but what we do see is yet another example of the problems inherent in the coexistence of trademarks and free software.

Comments (9 posted)

Fedora release naming "is a" bit contentious

March 28, 2012

This article was contributed by Nathan Willis

Fedora's advisory board is debating changing its long-followed tradition of selecting a code name for each new release according to a peculiar formula. Although the code names have never been an integral part of the distribution's marketing plan, the impending release of Fedora 17, with its crowd-selected moniker "Beefy Miracle", has stirred up several critics — some to take offense at the name itself, some who find it a burden to explain to outsiders, and some who simply want to do away with release code names altogether.

Fedora's release code names have a history pre-dating the project itself; the tradition started at Red Hat, which assigned a code name to each Red Hat desktop release according to a peculiar pattern wherein each pair of consecutive code names shared some relationship, but that relationship differed for every pair of releases. In those days, however, the connection between each new name and its predecessor remained a secret; the code name originated behind closed doors and when the new release landed, figuring out the link was part of the game.

That all changed when Fedora picked up the code name mantle, and instituted a public procedure for suggesting, vetting, and voting on each new release name. The project now takes suggestions on its wiki for each new development cycle, where submitters list the connection between the previous code name and their proposed follow-up. Red hat's legal department and the Fedora Advisory Board whittle down the options to a manageable number, and voting takes place on the Fedora project site.

The miraculous

Code name selection has not always been a smooth process, but no name was quite as divisive as "Beefy Miracle," which was first proposed as a code name for Fedora 16, and which lost out narrowly to the eventual winner "Verne" — despite a public marketing campaign run on the behalf of "Beefy Miracle". The name then resurfaced as a proposal for Fedora 17, and this time won the poll. Fedora 17 is slated for release on May 8.

Even during the Fedora 16 voting cycle, "Beefy Miracle" was a controversial choice, partly for its nonsensical nature, but also because its connection to the previous code name "Lovelock" stretched the rules. The official guidelines state that each pair of code names must share an "is a" relationship (e.g., Laughlin is a city in Nevada, and Lovelock is a city in Nevada). The submitted connection between "Lovelock" and "Beefy Miracle" was that both strings would eventually produce the number five when fed through an iterative formula. The code name lost out to "Verne," of course, but the submitted connection for the Fedora 17 release name was also tenuous: that both "Verne" and "Beefy Miracle" had been proposed as possible code names for Fedora 16.

In October 2011, after the voting, there were several critics. Michael Schwendt called it impossible to explain to users; Christoph Wickert said it had no connection to the actual product, and another user named Roger lamented that it did not signify anything "important." But the most extreme reaction came from Bob Jensen, who stated his desire to end the use of code names altogether.

The tedious

Jensen's 2011 call to end code names outright was terse and isolated to his sole email, but more users echoed the same sentiment as the planning cycle for Fedora 18 got underway in March. Stephen Smoogen called for an end to the naming cycle or changing to a different format in a message to the Fedora advisory-board list, saying "I am not sure what 'naming' does for us anymore. It is way too early in a release cycle to 'produce excitement'. [And if we can change out init systems, filesystem layout, we can surely examine whether naming does much or if there is something new we want to try.]"

In the resulting discussion, many of those who favor abolishing code names seemed to see no value in the actual names themselves. Seth Vidal, for example, said that selecting names consumes time and effort, but that no one remembers them. In a separate message, he said that release numbers were more useful because they enable one to quickly figure out how old a particular release is by counting backwards, which Fedora's unordered code names do not.

Fedora project leader Robyn Bergeron countered that the code names are incorporated into wallpapers, other design elements, and marketing materials, that participants in the naming process enjoy it, and further contended that release numbers are only "memorable" because people memorize how to count when they are children. Máirín Duffy (who leads the Fedora design team) said that the designers rarely find the code names inspirational, and although she was not in favor of abandoning them entirely (saying release numbers alone would be "cold"), she advocated selecting an consistent, ongoing theme like many other distributions use. "The current naming system usually results in awkward names that require lengthy explanation to those not involved."

Others pointed out additional value in having code names. Jason Brooks observed that when looking for help, code names make for more useful search terms than do numbers. Zoltan Hopper likened naming releases to naming children, and said each release is the creation of the community and thus ought to have a personality or identity.

Nevertheless, many of those who stood up for preserving release code names found room for improvement in the process itself. Clint Savage (who defended the use of code names as a part of Fedora's traditions and pointed to the value of non-artwork marketing such as "Beefy Miracle"-themed hot dog roasts), argued that the value of the code names outweighed the work involved in the process of selecting them, and that "maybe the problem is just a matter of streamlining."

Hopper, like Duffy, suggested picking a single theme. Choosing a theme wisely, such as scientists or inventors, he said, would also assist in marketing the distribution by lining up with Fedora's efforts to stay cutting-edge. Replacing the current process with a new one was also suggested by Matthias Clasen, who said "the naming thing started as a fun game, then it got 'standardized', and now it is just one more process that has stopped to be either fun or useful. [...] Time to reevaluate and come up with something fresh and fun that we can do for each release."

Selecting a code name that offends no one

A distinct (and arguably more serious) issue raised on the advisory-board list is the difficulty of choosing a code name that does not offend the beliefs or sensibilities of anyone. That tricky subject was raised first in a non-public ticket filed on the Advisory Board's issue tracker. The bug filer, Rajesh Ranjan, subsequently agreed to make the ticket's comment thread public by posting it to the advisory-board list.

The specific problem Ranjan raises is that the name "Beefy Miracle" is "is having a huge negative cultural, social, and political connotation with respect to India and several religions of India and [the] world." The cow is considered sacred in Hinduism, he said, so the term "beefy" is offensive because it refers to food made from beef, and it may be offensive to members of other religious groups as well as secular people from the Indian subcontinent. One commenter replied that as an international, non-religious and non-political project, Fedora should not seek to "appease" any specific belief systems — and that any code name chosen will inevitably offend someone.

That led others on the list to suggest picking a non-offensive code name "theme" — although upon further debate, finding a neutral theme is not so simple. Mario Juliano Grande Balletta suggested astronomy terms, but Josh Boyer pointed out that many astronomical object are named for potentially offensive things like the Roman god of war, and that any names of deities can be offensive to atheists. Duffy suggested coffee drinks, but Richard Fontana observed that some religions find caffeine offensive. Fontana also pointed out that the suggestion of famous scientists will undoubtedly skew towards men for historical reasons, while Ranjan noted that even numbers themselves can have negative cultural connotations.

Of course, picking names that have positive connotations everywhere on the globe is no simple task; consider the Mer project's debate in October 2011, which produced gems like "Meer" (which sounds diminutive in English), "MerDE" (which is unflattering in French), "Mermade" (which looks like a typo), and "Mermer" (which sounds difficult to understand on a phone). Given the impossibility of pleasing all of the people all of the time, talk turned to practical measures that the project could take to weed out offensive names during the code name selection process. Ranjan proposed asking the translation mailing list to look for offensive terms, since it encompasses a wide cultural circle. Nicu Buculei said that sounded like too much work, and user John Rose (aka inode0) speculated that it would be too hard to get volunteers to tackle the necessary code name vetting.

Practical steps

Bergeron acknowledged the importance of avoiding offensive terms, but expressed her faith in the Fedora community to catch and call attention to such offensive terms in code names and elsewhere:

I believe that 99.999% of the time, if or when an egregiously offensive *anything* comes up, people speak up. We've seen this in the past with a small handful of issues, and the community has always taken the steps to assess and sometimes correct those issues, case-by-case, through discussion and reasonable judgement.

Nevertheless, she advocated forwarding the code name suggestion list to the the translators for review, at the same time that it is sent to Red Hat's legal office for approval.

As to abandoning code names altogether, there has yet to be a real consensus on the board. Several people suggested adding an option to the Fedora 18 ballot to drop code names in future releases, while others felt that that question should be submitted to a separate vote. The window for suggesting code names for Fedora 18 is now closed, and the board has until March 30 to perform its own analysis of the suggestions. Voting will commence April 6; thus whichever route the board decides to take on the no-more-code-names question, the world will see it soon enough.

Fedora would not be the only distribution to make releases without a code name if it does choose that route; openSUSE, Slackware, and many others work without them, too. On the other hand, code names are an accepted practice — although most others do use a set theme. Debian uses Toy Story characters, Sugar uses fruit. A dimension not raised on the advisory board thread is that many projects stick to an alphabetic sequence for their code names, which makes them easier to sort into the correct order. That list includes Android's desserts, Ubuntu's adjective animals, and even Maemo's trade-winds. Plenty of other open source projects also use release names, whether they are chosen to communicate a message or are fully tongue-in-cheek. Perhaps Fedora's experience with "Beefy Miracle" will prompt a change of pace, but whichever direction the project heads from here, it will at least have made a conscious decision about what role — if any — its code names ought to play in its overall message.

Comments (66 posted)

A turning point for GNU libc

By Jonathan Corbet
March 28, 2012
The kernel may be the core of a Linux system, but neither users nor applications deal with the kernel directly. Instead, almost all interactions with the kernel are moderated through the C library, which is charged with providing a standards-compliant interface to the kernel's functionality. There are a number of C library implementations available, but, outside of the embedded sphere, most Linux systems use the GNU C library, often just called "glibc." The development project behind glibc has a long and interesting history which took a new turn with the dissolution of its steering committee on March 26.

In its early days, the GNU project was forced to focus on a small number of absolutely crucial projects; that is why the first program released under the GNU umbrella was Emacs. Once the core was in place, though, the developers realized they would need a few other components to build their new system; a C library featured prominently on that list. So, back in 1987, Roland McGrath started development on the GNU C library; by 1988, it was seen as being sufficiently far along that systems could be built on top of it.

By the time the Linux kernel came around in 1991, GNU libc was, like many other GNU components, the obvious choice for those working to build the first distributions. But, while GNU libc was a good starting point, it quickly became clear that (1) it still needed a lot of work, and (2) the GNU project's management style was, in typical fashion, making it hard to get that work done and merged. So, early on in the history of Linux, the GNU C library was forked and a Linux-specific version ("Linux libc") was maintained and shipped with Linux distributions.

The GNU project was rather slow to come around to the idea that Linux was the system that they had been trying to build all these years; they continued to develop their C library on their own, despite the fact that Linux was not using it. Early on most of the work came from Roland, but, slowly, other contributors appeared; the first contribution from Ulrich "Uli" Drepper appears to have been made in September, 1995. Early 1997 saw the first glibc 2.0 release; by then, most commits were made by Ulrich (though the code sometimes came from others).

While Linux libc had been adequately maintained, it had not seen vast amounts of new development work. There came a point where it became clear that, in fact, glibc 2 was a better C library in many ways. Distributors of Linux came to the conclusion that the time had come to switch back to the GNU library and, for all practical purposes, simply abandon the Linux libc project. Those of us who lived through the subsequent transition (as seen in the Red Hat 5.0 and Debian 2.0 releases) still tend to shudder; it was a time when programs would not build and bugs abounded. But things eventually settled down and glibc has been the standard C library for most Linux distributions since.

Glibc has continued to evolve up to the present at varying speeds; during most of this time, the bulk of the work has been done by Ulrich Drepper. Of the nearly 19,000 commits found in the project's git repository (which contains changes back to 1995), over 12,000 were made by Ulrich. Never known for a willingness to defer to others, Ulrich quickly became the decision maker for glibc. The project's steering committee was formed by the FSF in 2001 as a way of asserting some control over the project, but, to a great extent, that control remained in Ulrich's hands. In 2008, Roland described the situation this way:

drepper, roland have blanket discretion to commit. (This means that Uli gets to go upside my head after I commit something he doesn't like. It doesn't mean you get to lobby me to commit something that Uli has refused.)

Four other developers (Andreas Jaeger, Jakub Jelinek, Richard Henderson, and Andreas Schwab) had the ability to commit "after approval." But that approval, in the end, had to come from Ulrich.

One need not look far to find complaints about how Ulrich managed the glibc project. He was never one to suffer fools, and, evidently, he saw himself surrounded by a lot of fools. Attempts to get changes into glibc often resulted in serious flaming or simply being ignored. Developers often despaired of getting things done and simply gave up trying. It is easy to criticize Ulrich's attitude at times, but one should also not lose track of all the work he got done. This includes steady improvements to glibc, big jumps in functionality (as with the Native POSIX Thread Library work done with Ingo Molnar) and lots of fixes. Ulrich's work has made all of our systems better.

That work notwithstanding, Ulrich is widely seen as, at best, an unpleasant maintainer who has turned the glibc project into an unwelcoming place. One need not challenge that characterization to point out that glibc actually had a number of problems associated with highly cathedral-style projects: a well-ensconced priesthood, a lack of interest in or awareness of the wider world's needs, etc. At some point, it seemingly became clear to a number of developers associated with glibc that it needed to become a more open project with more than a single point of control. A number of changes have been made to prod it in that direction.

The switch to Git for source code management in May, 2009 was one such change. At that time, the repository was made slightly more open so that non-core maintainers could keep branches there. Ulrich opposed that decision, but Roland responded:

Please don't stand in the way of minor matters the rest of the community wants to improve collaboration, on vague grounds of conservatism or a default of mistrust.

The project started creating separate release branches and putting maintainers other than Ulrich in charge of them. The restricted-access "libc-hackers" mailing list fell into disuse and has been closed down. The use of Fedora as a sort of private testing ground has been halted after things broke one too many times. And a strong effort has been made to encourage more developers and to merge more code. The result is a release history that looks like this:

2.3 2002-10-03 3204
2.4 2006-03-06 5276
2.5 2006-09-29 348
2.6 2007-05-15 357
2.7 2007-10-18 446
2.8 2008-04-12 281
2.9 2008-11-13 293
2.10 2009-05-09 344
2.11 2009-10-30 408
2.12 2010-05-03 389
2.13 2011-01-17 261
2.14 2011-05-31 256
2.15 2011-12-23 582

(The 2.15 date is when the release was tagged; the announcement was, for whatever reason, not sent out for a few months). The 2.15 release suggests that development activity is on the increase after a sustained low point. Indeed, it is at its highest point since semi-regular releases began in 2006. Activity since 2.15 (483 commits, as of this writing) continues to be high by recent historical standards; perhaps more tellingly, only about 25% of those commits came from Ulrich. Given that he accounts for over 60% of the changes from 2.10 to 2.14, that suggests that a significant shift has taken place.

Also significant is the fact that Ulrich left Red Hat in September, 2010; according to his LinkedIn page, he is now "VP, Technology Division at Goldman Sachs." One can easily imagine that his new position might just have requirements that are unrelated to glibc maintenance. So a drop in participation is not entirely surprising; what is significant is that a growing community is more than taking up the slack.

The culmination of these trends came on March 26, when Roland announced that there was no longer any need for a glibc steering committee:

With the recent reinvigoration of volunteer efforts, the community of developers is now able to govern itself. Therefore, the Steering Committee has decided unanimously to dissolve. The direction and policies of the project will now be governed directly by the consensus of the people active in glibc development.

Glibc will remain a project under the GNU umbrella; Roland, along with Joseph Myers and Carlos O'Donell, will be the official GNU maintainers. But that role will give them no special decision-making powers; those powers are meant to be exercised by the project's development community as a whole. David Miller (an active glibc contributor) was quick to celebrate this change:

If you've tried to contribute to glibc in the past and were rudely treated and therefore gave up, I encourage you to come and try again, things are much different now. I promise.

David also hinted that one other possible obstacle to contribution - the requirement to assign copyrights to the Free Software Foundation - is also being worked on, though the form the solution might take is unclear. Other developers are already talking about working to merge at least some of the changes from the EGLIBC fork back into the glibc mainline and reopening old bugs and change requests.

So the GNU C library project has moved into a new phase, one where, for the first time in its long history, it will not be under the control of a single developer. It will be interesting to watch where things go from here. If the project succeeds in building robust community governance and shedding its hostile-to-contributors image, the pace of development could pick up considerably. Given the crucial position occupied by glibc on so many systems, these changes are almost certainly a good thing.

Comments (148 posted)

Page editor: Jonathan Corbet


OpenOffice and document encryption portability

March 28, 2012

This article was contributed by Nathan Willis

Striking the delicate balance between usability and secure default options has surfaced as an unexpected issue for the Apache OpenOffice (AOO) project in the closing days of its 3.4 development cycle. An AOO developer opened a bug report on March 18 forecasting trouble with the office suite's new encryption settings. The problem is that recent AOO builds switched from Blowfish to AES as the default cipher. Since no previous releases of OpenOffice or most other ODF-reading applications support AES (LibreOffice added it as a feature in LO 3.5), encrypted files created with the new builds were unreadable in other programs. Complicating matters is ambiguity about how to interpret the ODF standard, how to expose new encryption options in the interface, and whether or not file encryption is implemented securely to begin with.

The ODF document format supported by AOO, LibreOffice, and other office suites, allows users to password-encrypt any file (via the "Save with Password" option). Up until recently, Blowfish was the default choice in every ODF application. But, as original bug reporter Dennis Hamilton noted, starting with revision 1293550, AOO produces AES256 Cipher-block chaining (CBC) encrypted documents by default — which are then unreadable by LibreOffice 3.3 and 3.4 (prior to 3.4.5), the last stable release of OpenOffice, and by Lotus Symphony. Exacerbating matters, all three programs report that the encrypted file is malformed, rather than reporting that it uses a different encryption method.

The encryption algorithm used in a compliant ODF file is specified in the manifest, which is an XML file stored in the ODF ZIP-archive-based file format. Section 4.8.1 of the OpenDocument 1.2 specification defines only one value as compliant: Blowfish, in 8-bit cipher feedback (CFB) mode. However, the specification allows "extended" ODF 1.2 files to support other algorithms, and mandates a W3C-standardized syntax for identifying them. Thus, strictly speaking, the other ODF applications are failing to recognize a correctly-formatted ODF 1.2 "extended" file, which could hardly be construed as a bug in AOO.

Defaults, standards, and the weakest link

Several AOO developers observed that AOO was not to blame for other applications failing to understand the algorithm identifier in the file manifest and consequently voted that the bug did not qualify as a blocker to hold up the upcoming 3.4 release. Rob Weir, co-chair of the ODF 1.2 specification committee, said the problem was a security-versus-interoperability trade-off, that could be handled by user education. Users can be told about the interoperability issue and manually select the Blowfish cipher if desired. Furthermore, Weir argued that Blowfish needed to be replaced by AES anyway, both because it is a newer cipher, and because it is a US government recommended standard.

Hamilton disagreed on both points. First, he said, the AOO builds do not offer the user any way to select the encryption algorithm: they use AES automatically. Rather than serving as a "default" (which implies that a setting is available), the encryption algorithm used is fixed at build time — consequently AOO appears to produce corrupted ODF files, which will result in "a support nightmare" if released. Second, using AES encryption instead of Blowfish may not really increase security, he added in a follow-up, because ODF provides message digests based on the same start key used to encrypt the file, and because ODF does not properly salt digests. That provides attackers with a much easier target than the encrypted message body, making it irrelevant which encryption cipher is used.

Furthermore, Hamilton argued that ODF's XML contains extensive "boilerplate" text that can aid attackers in discovering a password, regardless of the cipher used:

There are gratuitously-included known-plaintext files in every ODF package produced by the well-known OpenOffice lineage implementations. Some of these are relatively short and their sizes and compressed values are known in advance. That makes these files easy to spot in an encrypted ODF package. That makes them interesting as aids to discovery of the password (or its digest) as well.

Not everyone agrees with his analysis, but Hamilton has submitted formal proposals for ODF 1.3 to fix the digest problems, and proposes introducing "chaff" into the known-plaintext files to further deflect attack. More immediately, however, he attached a short patch to restore Blowfish as the encryption algorithm in AOO.

Interoperability and user support

A discussion thread on the AOO development list ran in parallel to the one on the bug tracker. However, different facets of the issue cropped up on the list. There, Weir noted that LibreOffice, too, had enabled AES encryption, which should significantly increase the number of users who should be able to decrypt AES-based files, and pointed to the lack of complaints or confusion from users of either office suite.

T.J. Frazier reiterated that the root issue was not that AES was a bad default choice, but that AOO did not present any UI for the user to select an encryption cipher. He also argued that introducing an incompatibility with older releases was a problem in and of itself. "It is *wrong* to break compatibilities as this does, without long lead-time, and opt-in possibilities, unless there exists some drastic need. That has not been shown. Improvement, yes; crucial, no." Finally, he proposed several methods of enabling knowledgeable users to manually select AES, and volunteered to do the UI work.

In response to the compatibility-breaking issue, Weir replied that he simply did not see that the problem met the project's established guidelines for a release-blocking issue.

The encryption has been set to AES since 3.4 Beta, 9 months ago. I have not seen any user complaints. LO has made the same choice. I have not seen any user complaints there either. And now we're going to hold up the release for this? Really?

Hamilton replied that there had been complaints in the LibreOffice community, and observed that the LibreOffice project had back-ported AES support into its 3.4 release series (starting with 3.4.5) in order to restore compatibility. It should also be noted that the problem is only for users of the older tools trying to read password-protected files created with the newer — reading Blowfish-encrypted files is still supported in the new versions.

Ultimately, however, release manager Jürgen Schmidt had the final say, and he accepted the issue as critical enough to warrant reverting back to Blowfish in the AOO 3.4 release, and favored implementing a user-selectable encryption setting for the 4.0 series. As he added in a subsequent message, "most users don't care about the technical details and they will be simply confused if it won't work any more." Weir concurred with that plan, saying, "users who are smart enough to know they want AES will be smart enough to set that option."

That may be true, but of course introducing user-configurable encryption settings will be a UI challenge of its own. For its part, the LibreOffice team is also planning to institute a UI review for the next release cycle. As Michael Meeks pointed out, the changes affect document signing as well as password-encryption.

Meeks did not elaborate, but considering Hamilton's comment in the bug tracker outlining several different attacks on the encrypted files and digests, there may be no shortage of options. Some of those may require changes to the ODF format to fix completely, but all of them require a carefully-considered interface. After all, the "smart" users may be counted on to get it right more often than not, but making it difficult for the inexpert users to choose poor settings is also important. The more complexity users are presented with, the more of them are likely to simply stick with the defaults.

Comments (20 posted)

Brief items

Security quotes of the week

I'm there in spirit, though. The title of the hearing is "TSA Oversight Part III: Effective Security or Security Theater?"
-- Bruce Schneier gets uninvited to a US Congress hearing

ICANN will not be fixed. It cannot be fixed. It is structurally constituted in a manner that cannot reasonably serve the broad interests of today's global Internet community and the world community at large.

Year after year we've watched ICANN suddenly shift and sway like the proverbial bull in the china shop, smashing past promises and pronouncements in its wake. And now, like an out of control starship that has lurched beyond a black hole's event horizon, it is being sucked inexorably toward a dark chaos of greed, a maelstrom of its own creation.

-- Lauren Weinstein

My guess is that they can't. That is, they don't have a cryptanalytic attack against the AES algorithm that allows them to recover a key from known or chosen ciphertext with a reasonable time and memory complexity. I believe that what the "top official" was referring to is attacks that focus on the implementation and bypass the encryption algorithm: side-channel attacks, attacks against the key generation systems (either exploiting bad random number generators or sloppy password creation habits), attacks that target the endpoints of the communication system and not the wire, attacks that exploit key leakage, attacks against buggy implementations of the algorithm, and so on. These attacks are likely to be much more effective against computer encryption.
-- Bruce Schneier speculates on whether the NSA can break AES

Comments (none posted)

Cook: seccomp filter now in Ubuntu

On his blog, Kees Cook reports that the Ubuntu kernel for 12.04 has added the seccomp filters feature that uses the packet filtering machinery (BPF) to restrict access to system calls. He also notes that the feature will be added to the Chrome OS kernel soon. "One of the questions I’ve been asked by several people while they developed policy for earlier “mode 2″ seccomp implementations was “How do I figure out which syscalls my program is going to need?” To help answer this question, and to show a simple use of seccomp filter, I’ve written up a little tutorial that walks through several steps of building a seccomp filter. It includes a header file (“seccomp-bpf.h“) for implementing the filter, and a collection of other files used to assist in syscall discovery. It should be portable, so it can build even on systems that do not have seccomp available yet. [...] Read more in the seccomp filter tutorial."

Comments (41 posted)

New vulnerabilities

asterisk: code execution

Package(s):asterisk CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1183 CVE-2012-1184
Created:March 28, 2012 Updated:May 4, 2012
Description: The asterisk telephony system prior to version suffers from a stack overrun in milliwatt_generate() and a buffer overflow vulnerability in ast_parse_digest(). Either could be exploited to execute arbitrary code.
Fedora FEDORA-2012-6612 asterisk 2012-05-03
Debian DSA-2460-1 asterisk 2012-04-25
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4259 asterisk 2012-03-31
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4318 asterisk 2012-03-31
Gentoo 201203-21 asterisk 2012-03-28

Comments (none posted)

chromium: multiple vulnerabilities

Package(s):chromium CVE #(s):CVE-2011-3049 CVE-2011-3050 CVE-2011-3051 CVE-2011-3052 CVE-2011-3053 CVE-2011-3054 CVE-2011-3055 CVE-2011-3056 CVE-2011-3057
Created:March 26, 2012 Updated:November 7, 2012
Description: From the CVE entries:

Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 does not properly restrict the extension web request API, which allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (disrupted system requests) via a crafted extension. (CVE-2011-3049)

Use-after-free vulnerability in the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) implementation in Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service or possibly have unspecified other impact via vectors related to the :first-letter pseudo-element. (CVE-2011-3050)

Use-after-free vulnerability in the Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) implementation in Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service or possibly have unspecified other impact via vectors related to the cross-fade function. (CVE-2011-3051)

The WebGL implementation in Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 does not properly handle CANVAS elements, which allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (memory corruption) or possibly have unspecified other impact via unknown vectors. (CVE-2011-3052)

Use-after-free vulnerability in Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service or possibly have unspecified other impact via vectors related to block splitting. (CVE-2011-3053)

The WebUI privilege implementation in Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 does not properly perform isolation, which allows remote attackers to bypass intended access restrictions via unspecified vectors. (CVE-2011-3054)

The browser native UI in Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 does not require user confirmation before an unpacked extension installation, which allows user-assisted remote attackers to have an unspecified impact via a crafted extension. (CVE-2011-3055)

Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83 allows remote attackers to bypass the Same Origin Policy via vectors involving a "magic iframe." (CVE-2011-3056)

Google V8, as used in Google Chrome before 17.0.963.83, allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service via vectors that trigger an invalid read operation. (CVE-2011-3057)

Mageia MGASA-2012-0324 webkit 2012-11-06
Ubuntu USN-1524-1 webkit 2012-08-08
Ubuntu USN-1617-1 webkit 2012-10-25
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0492-1 chromium 2012-04-12
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0466-1 chromium 2012-04-04
Gentoo 201203-24 chromium 2012-03-30
Gentoo 201203-19 chromium 2012-03-25

Comments (none posted)

expat: denial of service

Package(s):expat CVE #(s):CVE-2012-0876 CVE-2012-1148
Created:March 28, 2012 Updated:June 8, 2016
Description: The expat utility suffers from a memory leak and a hash table collision flaw; either could be exploited for denial-of-service purposes.
Mandriva MDVSA-2013:117 python 2013-04-10
Ubuntu USN-1613-1 python2.5 2012-10-17
Ubuntu USN-1613-2 python2.4 2012-10-17
Gentoo 201209-06 expat 2012-09-24
Ubuntu USN-1527-2 xmlrpc-c 2012-09-10
Ubuntu USN-1527-1 expat 2012-08-09
Mageia MGASA-2012-0169 python 2012-07-19
Debian DSA-2525-1 expat 2012-08-06
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:096-1 python 2012-07-02
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:096 python 2012-06-20
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:097 python 2012-06-20
CentOS CESA-2012:0731 expat 2012-06-13
Fedora FEDORA-2012-6996 expat 2012-05-15
Oracle ELSA-2012-0731 expat 2012-06-14
Scientific Linux SL-expa-20120613 expat 2012-06-13
Fedora FEDORA-2012-5058 expat 2012-05-01
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0423-1 expat 2012-03-28
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:041 expat 2012-03-27
Oracle ELSA-2012-0745 python 2012-06-19
Oracle ELSA-2012-0744 python 2012-06-19
Oracle ELSA-2012-0731 expat 2012-06-14
CentOS CESA-2012:0731 expat 2012-06-13
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0731-01 expat 2012-06-13

Comments (none posted)

expat: denial of service

Package(s):expat CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1147
Created:March 28, 2012 Updated:March 28, 2012
Description: Expat suffers from a memory leak which may be exploited in a denial-of-service attack. See this message for (a little) more detail.
Gentoo 201209-06 expat 2012-09-24
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0423-1 expat 2012-03-28

Comments (none posted)

file: denial of service

Package(s):file CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1571
Created:March 23, 2012 Updated:July 7, 2014
Description: From the Mandriva advisory:

Multiple out-of heap-based buffer read flaws and invalid pointer dereference flaws were found in the way file, utility for determining of file types processed header section for certain Composite Document Format (CDF) files. A remote attacker could provide a specially-crafted CDF file, which once inspected by the file utility of the victim would lead to file executable crash.

Red Hat RHSA-2015:2155-07 file 2015-11-19
Oracle ELSA-2015-1135 php 2015-06-23
Mandriva MDVSA-2015:080 php 2015-03-28
Scientific Linux SLSA-2014:1606-2 file 2014-11-03
Red Hat RHSA-2014:1766-01 php55-php 2014-10-30
Red Hat RHSA-2014:1765-01 php54-php 2014-10-30
Oracle ELSA-2014-1326 php 2014-09-30
Oracle ELSA-2014-1327 php 2014-09-30
CentOS CESA-2014:1326 php 2014-09-30
CentOS CESA-2014:1326 php 2014-09-30
CentOS CESA-2014:1327 php 2014-09-30
Red Hat RHSA-2014:1326-01 php 2014-09-30
Red Hat RHSA-2014:1327-01 php 2014-09-30
Red Hat RHSA-2014:1606-02 file 2014-10-14
Mandriva MDVSA-2014:172 php 2014-09-03
Oracle ELSA-2014-1606 file 2014-10-16
Scientific Linux SLSA-2014:1326-1 php53 and php 2014-10-13
Scientific Linux SLSA-2014:1012-1 php53 and php 2014-08-06
CentOS CESA-2014:1012 php53 2014-08-06
Oracle ELSA-2014-1012 php53 2014-08-06
Oracle ELSA-2014-1012 php53 2014-08-06
CentOS CESA-2014:1012 php53 2014-08-06
Red Hat RHSA-2014:1012-01 php53 2014-08-06
Fedora FEDORA-2014-7992 file 2014-07-05
Ubuntu USN-2123-1 file 2014-02-26
Gentoo 201209-14 file 2012-09-26
Debian DSA-2422-2 file 2012-05-09
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0488-1 file 2012-04-12
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:035 file 2012-03-23
Red Hat RHSA-2016:0760-01 file 2016-05-10
Oracle ELSA-2016-0760 file 2016-05-13

Comments (none posted)

freetype: multiple vulnerabilities

Package(s):freetype CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1126 CVE-2012-1127 CVE-2012-1128 CVE-2012-1129 CVE-2012-1130 CVE-2012-1131 CVE-2012-1132 CVE-2012-1135 CVE-2012-1137 CVE-2012-1138 CVE-2012-1139 CVE-2012-1140 CVE-2012-1141 CVE-2012-1143
Created:March 23, 2012 Updated:April 24, 2012
Description: From the Ubuntu advisory:

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed BDF font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1126)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed BDF font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1127)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed TrueType font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1128)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed Type42 font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1129)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed PCF font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1130)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed TrueType font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1131)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed Type1 font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1132)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed TrueType font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1135)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed BDF font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1137)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed TrueType font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1138)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed BDF font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1139)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed PostScript font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1140)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed BDF font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1141)

Mateusz Jurczyk discovered that FreeType did not correctly handle certain malformed font files. If a user were tricked into using a specially crafted font file, a remote attacker could cause FreeType to crash. (CVE-2012-1143)

Slackware SSA:2012-176-01 freetype 2012-06-25
Fedora FEDORA-2012-5422 freetype 2012-04-24
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0553-1 freetype2 2012-04-23
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0483-2 freetype2 2012-04-23
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4946 freetype 2012-04-18
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0521-1 freetype2 2012-04-18
Gentoo 201204-04 freetype 2012-04-17
Oracle ELSA-2012-0467 freetype 2012-04-12
Oracle ELSA-2012-0467 freetype 2012-04-12
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0484-1 freetype2 2012-04-11
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0483-1 freetype2 2012-04-11
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0489-1 freetype2 2012-04-12
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:057 freetype2 2012-04-12
Scientific Linux SL-free-20120411 freetype 2012-04-11
CentOS CESA-2012:0467 freetype 2012-04-10
CentOS CESA-2012:0467 freetype 2012-04-10
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0467-01 freetype 2012-04-10
Ubuntu USN-1403-1 freetype 2012-03-22

Comments (none posted)

gnutls: denial of service

Package(s):gnutls26 CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1573
Created:March 26, 2012 Updated:March 28, 2012
Description: From the Debian advisory:

Matthew Hall discovered that GNUTLS does not properly handle truncated GenericBlockCipher structures nested inside TLS records, leading to crashes in applications using the GNUTLS library.

SUSE SUSE-SU-2014:0320-1 gnutls 2014-03-04
Slackware SSA:2013-287-03 gnutls 2013-10-14
Gentoo 201206-18 gnutls 2012-06-23
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0620-1 gnutls 2012-05-15
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4569 gnutls 2012-04-11
Ubuntu USN-1418-1 gnutls13, gnutls26 2012-04-05
Oracle ELSA-2012-0429 gnutls 2012-03-28
Oracle ELSA-2012-0428 gnutls 2012-03-28
Scientific Linux SL-gnut-20120328 gnutls 2012-03-28
Scientific Linux SL-gnut-20120328 gnutls 2012-03-28
CentOS CESA-2012:0429 gnutls 2012-03-28
CentOS CESA-2012:0428 gnutls 2012-03-28
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0429-01 gnutls 2012-03-27
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0428-01 gnutls 2012-03-27
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:040 gnutls 2012-03-27
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4578 gnutls 2012-03-26
Debian DSA-2441-1 gnutls26 2012-03-25

Comments (none posted)

iproute: insecure temp files

Package(s):iproute CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1088
Created:March 26, 2012 Updated:March 28, 2012
Description: From the Red Hat bugzilla:

Multiple (by checking for ATM technology support, checking for Xtables extension support, checking for setns() system call support, and in dhcp-client-script example script) insecure temporary file use cases were found in iproute. A local attacker could use this flaw to conduct symbolic link attacks (modify or remove files via specially-crafted link names).

Fedora FEDORA-2012-3068 iproute 2012-03-24
Fedora FEDORA-2012-3008 iproute 2012-03-24

Comments (none posted)

kernel: address-space layout randomization bypass

Package(s):kernel CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1568
Created:March 22, 2012 Updated:May 1, 2012

From the Red Hat bugzilla entry:

When running a binary with a lot of shared libraries, predictable base address is used for one of the loaded libraries.

This flaw could be used to bypass ASLR.

Oracle ELSA-2013-1645 kernel 2013-11-26
Scientific Linux SL-kern-20130123 kernel 2013-01-23
Oracle ELSA-2013-0168 kernel 2013-01-23
Oracle ELSA-2013-0168 kernel 2013-01-23
Red Hat RHSA-2013:0168-01 kernel 2013-01-22
CentOS CESA-2013:0168 kernel 2013-01-23
Red Hat RHSA-2012:1426-01 kernel 2012-11-06
Scientific Linux SL-kern-20121107 kernel 2012-11-07
Oracle ELSA-2012-1426 kernel 2012-11-06
CentOS CESA-2012:1426 kernel 2012-11-07
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0575-1 Samba 2012-05-01
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4410 kernel 2012-03-22

Comments (none posted)

libtasn1-3: denial of service

Package(s):libtasn1-3 CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1569
Created:March 26, 2012 Updated:September 26, 2012
Description: From the Debian advisory:

Matthew Hall discovered that many callers of the asn1_get_length_der function did not check the result against the overall buffer length before processing it further. This could result in out-of-bounds memory accesses and application crashes. Applications using GNUTLS are exposed to this issue.

Oracle ELSA-2014-0596 libtasn1 2014-06-03
SUSE SUSE-SU-2014:0320-1 gnutls 2014-03-04
Slackware SSA:2013-287-03 gnutls 2013-10-14
Gentoo 201209-12 libtasn1 2012-09-25
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0620-1 gnutls 2012-05-15
Ubuntu USN-1436-1 libtasn1-3 2012-05-02
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4417 mingw-libtasn1 2012-04-12
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4417 mingw32-gnutls 2012-04-12
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4308 libtasn1 2012-04-06
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4342 libtasn1 2012-04-06
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4409 mingw32-gnutls 2012-03-31
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4409 mingw-libtasn1 2012-03-31
Oracle ELSA-2012-0428 gnutls 2012-03-28
Oracle ELSA-2012-0427 libtasn1 2012-03-28
Scientific Linux SL-libt-20120328 libtasn1 2012-03-28
Scientific Linux SL-gnut-20120328 gnutls 2012-03-28
CentOS CESA-2012:0427 libtasn1 2012-03-28
CentOS CESA-2012:0428 gnutls 2012-03-28
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0428-01 gnutls 2012-03-27
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0427-01 libtasn1 2012-03-27
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:039 libtasn1 2012-03-27
Debian DSA-2440-1 libtasn1-3 2012-03-24

Comments (none posted)

libzip: multiple vulnerabilities

Package(s):libzip CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1162 CVE-2012-1163
Created:March 23, 2012 Updated:March 29, 2012
Description: From the Mandriva advisory:

libzip (version <= 0.10) uses an incorrect loop construct, which can result in a heap overflow on corrupted zip files (CVE-2012-1162).

libzip (version <= 0.10) has a numeric overflow condition, which, for example, results in improper restrictions of operations within the bounds of a memory buffer (e.g., allowing information leaks) (CVE-2012-1163).

Gentoo 201203-23 libzip 2012-03-29
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0416-1 libzip 2012-03-27
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:034 libzip 2012-03-23

Comments (none posted)

openarena: denial of service

Package(s):openarena CVE #(s):CVE-2010-5077
Created:March 27, 2012 Updated:April 19, 2012
Description: From the Debian advisory:

It has been discovered that spoofed "getstatus" UDP requests are being sent by attackers to servers for use with games derived from the Quake 3 engine (such as openarena). These servers respond with a packet flood to the victim whose IP address was impersonated by the attackers, causing a denial of service.

Mageia MGASA-2012-0148 tremulous 2012-07-09
Fedora FEDORA-2012-5434 tremulous 2012-04-18
Debian DSA-2442-2 openarena 2012-03-31
Debian DSA-2442-1 openarena 2012-03-26

Comments (none posted)

openssl: multiple vulnerabilities

Package(s):openssl CVE #(s):CVE-2012-0884 CVE-2012-1165
Created:March 26, 2012 Updated:April 23, 2012
Description: From the openSUSE advisory:

The implementation of Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS) and PKCS #7 in OpenSSL before 0.9.8u and 1.x before 1.0.0h does not properly restrict certain oracle behavior, which makes it easier for context-dependent attackers to decrypt data via a Million Message Attack (MMA) adaptive chosen ciphertext attack (CVE-2012-0884).

The mime_param_cmp function in crypto/asn1/asn_mime.c in OpenSSL before 0.9.8u and 1.x before 1.0.0h allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (NULL pointer dereference and application crash) via a crafted S/MIME message, a different vulnerability than CVE-2006-7250 (CVE-2012-1165).

Gentoo 201312-03 openssl 2013-12-02
Oracle ELSA-2013-0587 openssl 2013-03-05
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2013:0336-1 openssl 2013-02-25
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0674-1 openssl 2012-05-30
Ubuntu USN-1451-1 openssl 2012-05-24
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0547-1 openssl 2012-04-23
Ubuntu USN-1424-1 openssl 2012-04-19
Debian DSA-2454-1 openssl 2012-04-19
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4659 openssl 2012-04-11
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4665 openssl 2012-04-11
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0474-1 openssl 2012-04-10
Oracle ELSA-2012-0426 openssl 2012-03-28
Oracle ELSA-2012-0426 openssl 2012-03-28
Scientific Linux SL-open-20120328 openssl 2012-03-28
CentOS CESA-2012:0426 openssl 2012-03-28
CentOS CESA-2012:0426 openssl 2012-03-28
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0426-01 openssl 2012-03-27
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:038 openssl 2012-03-26

Comments (none posted)

openssl: denial of service

Package(s):openssl CVE #(s):CVE-2006-7250
Created:March 26, 2012 Updated:March 28, 2012
Description: From the CVE entry:

The mime_hdr_cmp function in crypto/asn1/asn_mime.c in OpenSSL 0.9.8t and earlier allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (NULL pointer dereference and application crash) via a crafted S/MIME message.

Gentoo 201312-03 openssl 2013-12-02
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0674-1 openssl 2012-05-30
Ubuntu USN-1424-1 openssl 2012-04-19
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0414-1 openssl 2012-03-26

Comments (none posted)

osc: code execution

Package(s):osc CVE #(s):CVE-2012-1095
Created:March 22, 2012 Updated:March 28, 2012

From the Red Hat bugzilla entry:

A security flaw was found in the way osc, the Python language based command line client for the openSUSE build service, displayed build logs and build status for particular build. A rogue repository server could use this flaw to modify window's title, or possibly execute arbitrary commands or overwrite files via a specially-crafted build log or build status output containing an escape sequence for a terminal emulator.

openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0400-1 osc 2012-03-22

Comments (none posted)

php5: multiple vulnerabilities

Package(s):PHP5 CVE #(s):CVE-2012-0781 CVE-2012-0789 CVE-2012-0807
Created:March 26, 2012 Updated:July 2, 2012
Description: From the CVE entries:

The tidy_diagnose function in PHP 5.3.8 might allow remote attackers to cause a denial of service (NULL pointer dereference and application crash) via crafted input to an application that attempts to perform Tidy::diagnose operations on invalid objects, a different vulnerability than CVE-2011-4153. (CVE-2012-0781)

Memory leak in the timezone functionality in PHP before 5.3.9 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (memory consumption) by triggering many strtotime function calls, which are not properly handled by the php_date_parse_tzfile cache. (CVE-2012-0789)

Stack-based buffer overflow in the suhosin_encrypt_single_cookie function in the transparent cookie-encryption feature in the Suhosin extension before 0.9.33 for PHP, when suhosin.cookie.encrypt and suhosin.multiheader are enabled, might allow remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via a long string that is used in a Set-Cookie HTTP header. (CVE-2012-0807)

Gentoo 201412-10 egroupware, vte, lft, suhosin, slock, ganglia, gg-transport 2014-12-11
SUSE SUSE-SU-2013:1351-1 PHP5 2013-08-16
Gentoo 201209-03 php 2012-09-23
CentOS CESA-2012:1046 php 2012-07-10
Scientific Linux SL-php-20120709 php 2012-07-09
Scientific Linux SL-php5-20120705 php53 2012-07-05
Scientific Linux SL-php-20120705 php 2012-07-05
Oracle ELSA-2012-1046 php 2012-06-30
Oracle ELSA-2012-1047 php53 2012-06-28
Oracle ELSA-2012-1045 php 2012-06-28
CentOS CESA-2012:1047 php53 2012-06-27
CentOS CESA-2012:1045 php 2012-06-27
Red Hat RHSA-2012:1047-01 php53 2012-06-27
Red Hat RHSA-2012:1046-01 php 2012-06-27
Red Hat RHSA-2012:1045-01 php 2012-06-27
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:071 php 2012-05-10
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:065 php 2012-04-27
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0496-1 PHP5 2012-04-12
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0472-1 PHP5 2012-04-06
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0426-1 php5 2012-03-29
SUSE SUSE-SU-2012:0411-1 PHP5 2012-03-24
Ubuntu USN-1481-1 php5 2012-06-19

Comments (none posted)

raptor: information disclosure

Package(s):raptor CVE #(s):CVE-2012-0037
Created:March 22, 2012 Updated:July 8, 2013

From the Debian advisory:

It was discovered that Raptor, a RDF parser and serializer library, allows file inclusion through XML entities, resulting in information disclosure.

Gentoo 201408-19 openoffice-bin 2014-08-31
Ubuntu USN-1901-1 raptor2 2013-07-08
Gentoo 201209-05 libreoffice 2012-09-24
Fedora FEDORA-2012-10590 raptor 2012-07-30
Fedora FEDORA-2012-10591 raptor 2012-07-30
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:063 libreoffice 2012-04-21
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:062 2012-04-21
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:061 raptor 2012-04-21
Fedora FEDORA-2012-4663 raptor2 2012-04-12
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0433-1 libreoffice 2012-03-30
openSUSE openSUSE-SU-2012:0428-1 libreoffice 2012-03-29
Scientific Linux SL-open-20120326 2012-03-26
CentOS CESA-2012:0411 2012-03-23
Scientific Linux SL-rapt-20120323 raptor 2012-03-23
Oracle ELSA-2012-0410 raptor 2012-03-22
CentOS CESA-2012:0410 raptor 2012-03-22
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0411-01 2012-03-22
Red Hat RHSA-2012:0410-01 raptor 2012-03-22
Debian DSA-2438-1 raptor 2012-03-22
Ubuntu USN-1480-1 raptor 2012-06-18

Comments (none posted)

wireshark: multiple vulnerabilities

Package(s):wireshark CVE #(s):
Created:March 28, 2012 Updated:March 28, 2012
Description: Wireshark prior to version 1.6.6 suffers from vulnerabilities in the ANSI A, 802.11, and MP2T dissectors, along with one in the pcap and pcap-ng file parsers. At least some of them look exploitable to run arbitrary code.
Mandriva MDVSA-2012:042 wireshark 2012-03-28

Comments (none posted)

Page editor: Jake Edge

Kernel development

Brief items

Kernel release status

The 3.4 merge window remains open, so there is no current development kernel. See the article below for a summary of changes pulled in for the 3.4 release.

Stable updates: the 3.0.26 and 3.2.13 updates were released on March 23; each contains a small set of important fixes.

The update came out on March 22; it has a much longer list of fixes.

Comments (none posted)

Quotes of the week

Current trends are: for every 1000 patches sent there's maybe one patch that has a tad too much information in its changelog - but instead offers good entertainment in the changelog so it's still perfectly fine. 990 patches have too little information. The remaining 9 are just fine.
-- Ingo Molnar

When trying to review this I went completely crosseyed then fell on the floor.
-- Andrew Morton has a dangerous job

In a classic computer environment you would want the log filled with notifications so that the user could do something about it. On a phone, settop box, TV set or seatback entertainment system logging is evil. No one who has any business seeing a log message has any desire to see one. It does not matter how important the log message might be.

It's getting harder and harder to have rational error handling at the OS level as application environments move to higher levels and greater abstraction.

-- Casey Schaufler

Comments (none posted)

The Nouveau driver graduates from staging

Linus has merged a patch which moves the Nouveau graphics driver out of its symbolic location in staging and into the mainline proper; among other things, this move is an indication that no further ABI breaks (which have not happened for a while anyway) are expected. Also merged is initial mode-setting support for the just-released "Kepler" chipset from NVIDIA.

("Symbolic" because the Nouveau code has never been in the staging tree; only the configuration option was placed there.)

Comments (15 posted)

Kernel development news

3.4 Merge window part 2

By Jonathan Corbet
March 28, 2012
In the 3.3 release announcement, Linus warned developers that he would be taking a bit of time off during the merge window; that did indeed happen over the last week. Still, he managed to pull some 4,000 changesets since last week's summary. Some of the more significant changes merged in the last week include:

  • The PowerPC has gained a new firmware-assisted dump facility for the quick capture and analysis of crash dumps.

  • The GFS2 filesystem now supports the FITRIM ioctl() command which can be used to send discard requests to the underlying storage device.

  • The prctl() system call has a new option called PR_SET_CHILD_SUBREAPER. Marking a process this way will cause any orphan descendant processes to be reparented to the marked process rather than to the init process. There is a corresponding PR_GET_CHILD_SUBREAPER option as well.

  • The Microblaze architecture now has high memory support.

  • The ext4 "noacl" and "noattr" mount options have been marked deprecated with an eye toward removal in the near future. Without these options, it will not be possible to disable ACL and extended attribute support. No other filesystem allows that support to be disabled. The "journal=update" and "resize" mount options have been removed entirely. On the other hand, plans to remove the "bsd_df", "minix_df", "grpid" and "nogrpid" options have been dropped in response to complaints from users.

  • New hardware support includes:

    • Processors and systems: GE Intelligent Platforms IMP3A boards, Atmel AT91SAM9x5 processors, Bluegiga APX4 development kits, and OMAP4 "remote" processors (see below).

    • Audio: Wolfson WM2200 CODECs, and Maxim MAX9768 amplifiers.

    • Graphics: Intel Medfield-based GMA500 adapters, NVIDIA Kepler chipsets (mode-setting only), ATI RadeonHD 7xxx and "Trinity" chipsets, USB-attached Displaylink video adapters, Samsung S5PC210 and EXYNOS MIPI-DSI controllers, and Intel 750 graphics cards.

    • Input: Cypress TrueTouch Standard Product touchscreen controllers, Synaptics USB touchpads, TI touchscreen controllers, MAXIM MAX8997 haptic controllers, and Ilitek ILI210X based touchscreens.

    • Miscellaneous: Freescale IFC external NAND controllers, NVIDIA Tegra pinmuxes, CSR SiRFprimaII-based I2C interfaces, TI LP8550/LP8551/LP8552/LP8553/LP8556 backlight devices, Pandora console backlight devices, and Dialog DA9052/DA9053 RTCs.

      Video4Linux: Afatech AF9005 based DVB-T/DVB-C receivers, and Keene FM transmitters.

Changes visible to kernel developers include:

  • A new subsystem called "remoteproc" has been merged; it allows for the control of remote processors (those on the same SoC but running something other than Linux) through shared memory. The new "rpmsg" subsystem is a virtio-based mechanism for communicating with those processors. There will probably be a separate article on these facilities soon; in the meantime, see Documentation/remoteproc.txt and rpmsg.txt for more information.

  • The new for_each_clear_bit() macro iterates through each un-set bit in a word.

  • The poll_requested_events() function has been added as a way for drivers to learn exactly what events user space is polling for. Also added is:

        bool poll_does_not_wait(const poll_table *p);

    which returns true iff it is known that the poll() call will not block.

Also worthy of note is that there has been a vast amount of work done in the ARM architecture tree; the process of consolidating and cleaning up the ARM code continues at a high rate.

The 3.4 merge window would normally be expected to end around April 2. When he announced his vacation, Linus said that he would extend the merge window for a bit if necessary - though he warned that he would still only consider pull requests received during the window. Whether that will happen remains to be seen; either way, next week's Kernel Page will summarize the last new features merged for 3.4.

Comments (6 posted)

IMA appraisal extension

By Jake Edge
March 28, 2012

The "integrity" of a Linux system is based on whether it is running the code that the administrator expects. If not, a compromise of the system may have occurred. The Linux integrity subsystem is meant to detect those unexpected changes to files in order to protect systems against compromise. That is done by creating integrity "measurements" (hashes of contents and metadata) of files of interest.

Much of what is needed to do integrity management has already landed in the mainline, but there are a few remaining pieces. The integrity measurement architecture (IMA) appraisal extension patch set from Mimi Zohar and Dmitry Kasatkin fills in one missing piece: storing and validating the integrity measurement of files. A hash of a file's contents and metadata will be stored in the security.ima extended attribute (xattr) of the file, and the patch set will create and maintain those xattrs. In addition, it can enforce that the file contents are "correct" when the file is opened for reading or executing based on the integrity values that were stored.

The integrity subsystem has taken a rather twisted path into the kernel. It was proposed as far back as 2005, but the subsystem has been broken up into smaller pieces several times along the way. Much of IMA was added to the kernel in 2.6.30, but another piece, the extended verification module (EVM) was not merged until 3.2. Digital signature support was added to EVM in 3.3, and IMA appraisal is currently under review.

As described on the Linux IMA web page, the integrity subsystem is meant to thwart various kinds of attacks against the contents of files, both on- and off-line. Unexpected changes to files, particularly executables, may be a sign that the system has been compromised. In addition, the subsystem allows the use of the "Trusted Platform Module" (TPM) to collect integrity measurements and sign them in such a way that the system can "attest" to its integrity. That attestation could be sent to another system to "prove" that the system is intact—only approved code is running.

Current kernels can generate an integrity measurement of files that are executed, collect and digitally sign them with keys from the TPM (or the kernel keyring), and use that information for remote attestation. EVM adds the ability to thwart offline attacks against the file contents or metadata by hashing the values of the security xattrs of the file (e.g. security.selinux, security.ima), signing that hash, and storing it as security.evm.

But, there is nothing in place that would stop a running system from executing or reading a file that has been changed. If a file with an IMA hash is opened for reading or executing, the appraisal extension will check to see if the contents match the stored hash. If they don't match, the ima_appraise kernel command-line parameter determines what happens. If it is set to "enforce", access to the file is denied, while "fix" will update the IMA xattr with the new value. In addition, "off" can be used to turn off any file appraisal.

In order to recognize that a file has changed while it is open, the appraisal extension requires the filesystem to support i_version, which is a counter that gets incremented any time the file's inode gets updated. Filesystems must be mounted with i_version option in order for the appraisal extension to work. That allows the extension to notice the change when the file is closed and either update the xattr or flag the file change as a policy violation.

In order to get the initial security.ima xattrs on files that are to be appraised (by default, all files owned by root), one boots the kernel with ima_appraise_tcb (which enables appraisal) and ima_appraise=fix, and then by opening all files of interest (e.g. via a find command as suggested on the IMA web page).

The IMA appraisal extension will complete the off-line attack detection that EVM provides. Because the extension will create and maintain the security.ima xattr, EVM will be able to detect changes to the file contents.

In response to an earlier version of the patch set, James Morris asked if there were any distributions that were planning to use IMA and EVM once all the pieces are in place. George Wilson said that IBM plans to use it internally once distributions have incorporated it. In addition, Ryan Ware and Kasatkin said that the Tizen mobile distribution plans to use it for some product profiles.

But, before any of that can happen, the appraisal extension needs to find a way to change its locking behavior to get past a NAK by Al Viro. In the current patches, the final __fput() is deferred if a file is closed before munmap() is called in kernels using IMA appraisal. Viro is concerned that this changes the locking conditions based on whether the kernel is using IMA or not, which may make locking problems harder to spot. He also said that the overhead is too high for a commonly used path, and that not all of the places where __fput() is used were covered by the patch. So far, no solution to the problem has been found, though Viro did suggest possibly using a different mutex for changing xattrs, but that it would take a fair amount of code review to determine if that could be done.

Given that the patch set completes a job started by EVM, and will, for the most part, complete the integrity subsystem, it seems likely that a solution will be found. There are a few lingering pieces of IMA appraisal that are still coming, according to the "An Overview of the Linux Integrity Subsystem [PDF]" white paper. Two specific pieces are mentioned, one to add digital signature capabilities for vendor-signed files, and another that will protect directory contents (e.g. filenames). While the currently proposed patches may still need some work before they can be considered for the mainline, those working on the integrity subsystem are probably finally starting to see the light at the end of a long tunnel.

Comments (5 posted)

AutoNUMA: the other approach to NUMA scheduling

By Jonathan Corbet
March 27, 2012
Last week's Kernel Page included an article on Peter Zijlstra's NUMA scheduling patch set. As it happens, Peter is not the only developer working in this area; Andrea Arcangeli has posted a NUMA scheduling patch set of his own called AutoNUMA. Andrea's goal is the same - keep processes and their memory together on the same NUMA node - but the approach taken to get there is quite different. These two patch sets embody a disagreement on how the problem should be solved that could take some time to work out.

Peter's patch set works by assigning a "home node" to each process, then trying to concentrate the process and its memory on that node. Andrea's patch lacks the concept of home nodes; he thinks it is an idea that will not work well for programs that don't fit into a single node unless developers add code to use Peter's new system calls. Instead, Andrea would like NUMA scheduling to "just work" in the same way that transparent huge pages do. So his patch set seems to assume that resources will be spread out across the system; it then focuses on cleaning things up afterward. The key to the cleanup task is a bunch of statistics and a couple of new kernel threads.

The first of these threads is called knuma_scand. Its primary job is to scan through each process's address space, marking its in-RAM anonymous pages with a special set of bits that makes the pages look, to the hardware, like they are not present. If the process tries to access such a page, a page fault will result; the kernel will respond by marking the page "present" again so that the process can go about its business. But the kernel also tracks the node that the page lives on and the node the accessing process was running on, noting any mismatches. For each process, the kernel maintains an array of counters to track which node each of its recently-accessed pages were located on. For pages, the information tracked is necessarily more coarse; the kernel simply remembers the last node to access each page.

When the time comes for the scheduler to make a decision, it passes over the per-process statistics to determine whether the target process would be better off if it were moved to another node. If the process seems to be accessing most of its pages remotely, and it is better suited to the remote node than the processes already running there, it will be migrated over. This code drew a strenuous objection from Peter, who does not like the idea of putting a big for-each-CPU loop into the middle of the scheduler's hot path. After some light resistance, Andrea agreed that this logic eventually needs to find a different home where it would run less often. For testing, though, he likes things the way they are, since it causes the scheduler to converge more quickly on its chosen solution.

Moving processes around will only help so much, though, if their memory is spread across multiple NUMA nodes. Getting the best performance out of the system clearly requires a mechanism to gather pages of memory onto the same node as well. In the AutoNUMA patch, the first non-local fault (in response to the special page marking described above) will cause that page's "last node ID" value to be set to the accessing node; the page will also be queued to be migrated to that node. A subsequent fault from a different node will cancel that migration, though; after the first fault, two faults in a row from the same node are required to cause the page to be queued for migration.

Every NUMA node gets a new kernel thread (knuma_migrated) that is charged with passing over the lists of pages queued for migration and actually moving them to the target node. Migration is not unconditional - it depends, for example, on there being sufficient memory available on the destination node. But, most of the time, these migration threads should manage to pull pages toward the nodes where they are actually used.

Beyond the above-mentioned complaint about putting heavy computation into schedule(), Peter has found a number of things to dislike about this patch set. He doesn't like the worker threads, to begin with:

The problem I have with farming work out to other entities is that its thereafter terribly hard to account it back to whoemever caused the actual work. Suppose your kworker thread consumes a lot of cpu time -- this time is then obviously not available to your application -- but how do you find out what/who is causing this and cure it?

Andrea responds that the cost of these threads is small to the point that it cannot really be measured. It is a little harder to shrug off Peter's other complaint, though: that this patch set consumes a large amount of memory. The kernel maintains one struct page for every page of memory in the system. Since a typical system can have millions of pages, this structure must be kept as small as possible. But the AutoNUMA patch adds a list_head structure (for the migration queue) and two counters to each page structure. The end result can be a lot of memory lost to the AutoNUMA machinery.

The plan is to eventually move this information out of struct page; then, among other things, the kernel can avoid allocating it at all if AutoNUMA is not actually in use. But, for the NUMA case, that memory will still be consumed regardless of its location, and some users are unlikely to be happy even if others, as Andrea asserts, will be happy to give up a big chunk of memory if they get a 20% performance improvement in return. This looks like an argument that will not be settled in the near future, and, chances are, the memory impact of AutoNUMA will need to be reduced somehow. Perhaps, your editor naively suggests, knuma_migrated and its per-page list_head structure could be replaced by the "lazy migration" scheme used in Peter's patch.

NUMA scheduling is hard and doing it right requires significant expertise in both scheduling and memory management. So it seems like a good thing that the problem is receiving attention from some of the community's top scheduler and memory management developers. It may be that one or both of their solutions will be shown to be unworkable for some workloads to the point that it simply needs to be dropped. What may be more likely, though, is that these developers will eventually stop poking holes in each other's patches and, together, figure out how to combine the best aspects of each into a working solution that all can live with. What seems certain is that getting to that point will probably take some time.

Comments (10 posted)

Patches and updates

Kernel trees


Core kernel code

Development tools

  • Artem Bityutskiy: Aiaiai . (March 28, 2012)

Device drivers


Filesystems and block I/O

Memory management


Virtualization and containers


Page editor: Jonathan Corbet


Debian Edu/Skolelinux: A distribution for education

March 28, 2012

This article was contributed by Bruce Byfield

Debian Edu is one of the quiet success stories of free software. If you are North American, you might have barely heard of it. Depending on what country you are in, you might know it better as Skolelinux. Or perhaps you have heard of Extremadura, an autonomous region of Spain that has deployed tens of thousands installations of LinEx, which is a Skolelinux partner. Under all these names, Debian Edu has worked for almost eleven years building a totally free-licensed distribution that balances the demands of complex hardware configurations with the educational needs of children.

Debian Edu began with two projects founded in 2001: Debian Edu, founded by Raphaël Hertzog in France, and Skolelinux, founded by a group of Norwegian developers. The projects merged in 2006, and today Debian Edu is technically used for the project name and Skolelinux for the distribution, although in practice the names are used interchangeably according to personal preference and previous regional branding.

[Skolelinux desktop]

The goals of Debian Edu are unchanged from when the two initial projects began. According to Petter Reinholdtsen, one of Skolelinux's founders, they are to educate school children while using free software that supports each student's native languages. Debian was chosen as the base distribution because it was known to have a package to create installation CDs — a rare feature, back then. Similarly, thin clients were supported first because Ragnar Wisløf, another Skolelinux founder, was familiar with the Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP), which seemed a good match for the older hardware often found at schools.

"Later," Reinholdtsen said, "we added support for network booted workstations with all software running locally but without a local disk, providing a powerful desktop without any local maintenance."

Today the project is funded regularly by its legal entity, SLX Debian Labs Foundation, which is also the majority owner of Skolelinux Drift AS, a company that provides commercial support for schools and municipalities. In the past, the project has also received funding from other sources, including the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Ministry of Reform and Administration.

Currently, Debian Edu has an active group of about ten developers, and an unknown number of translators and other contributors. A member association, Fri Programvare i Skolen organizes developer meetings and promotes the project. The project also works with Edubuntu, particularly on the LTSP project, and has some contact with similar projects in Brazil and other parts of the world, although "not as much as I would wish," Reinholdtsen added.

As with most free software projects, accurate installation numbers are impossible to find. However, Reinholdtsen calculated that a minimum of 120 schools use Skolelinux in Norway alone. Other large communities of users are in France and Germany, and some are known to exist in Japan and Taiwan as well.

Installation and documentation

Skolelinux uses the standard Debian installer, lightly rebranded and with a few additions. Contrary to the still-surviving myth, this installer is no longer much of a challenge to use, although it still offers more choices than the installation programs of most major distributions. In fact, according to Reinholdtsen, Debian Edu helped to fund Joey Hess's extensive rewriting of the Debian installer a few years ago.

All the same, Skolelinux is unusual enough that users should read the first few sections of the distribution's manual before beginning to install. Mercifully, documentation is one of the project's priorities, and the information provided is clear, precise, and mostly complete.

The Architecture section in particular could be used as a primer for a general understanding of thin clients and network-boot workstations. However, the section might benefit from more practical information about basic hardware setup. Common hardware alternatives, such as workstations that boot from an external drive, could also be discussed in more detail, although that could easily become an endless task.

Administrators might also want to familiarize themselves beforehand with what Debian calls flavors — the installation sets for different circumstances. A main server is required for administration and installing on other machines, but a complete setup might consist of any number of secondary servers, workstations, thin clients, as well, perhaps, as roaming workstations (ones that are sometimes off the network). The installer also allows standalone installations for those who want to try Skolelinux without a network, perhaps on a student's notebook.

Each of these flavors differs in both the hardware requirements and the software installed. For example, thin client servers may require two Ethernet cards (one to connect to the main server and another to connect to the thin clients), while the firewall and administrative tools, unsurprisingly, are only installed on the server. Hard drive memory requirements are especially different, with a minimum of 15GB required for a workstation, and 30GB for the server. Similarly, the main server requires roughly 2GB of RAM for every 30 client machines. Since Skolelinux is often used to extend the useful years of older hardware, it is important to check that these varied requirements are met.

Once you start to install, the procedure is straightforward. However, pay attention to the final messages about hardware and software that is still unconfigured, such as Kerberos. These messages are probably unnecessary for most people likely to be installing Skolelinux, but they are useful reminders of what remains to be done before a fully functioning network exists.

Administration, user features, and software

As with installation, Skolelinux's administration features and software are best approached first from the manual and HOWTOs, or, for advanced topics, from the Debian Edu wiki.

Many of the administrative functions, such as installing general packages or permitting automatic security upgrades will be familiar to many general users of Linux. However, the documentation also includes such features as suggestions about other tools to use, a script for creating directories simultaneously in each user's home directory, and brief descriptions of lesser-known alternate software sources such as Debian's stable-updates and backports repositories. Like the installation instructions, this material provides an overview that even non-Skolelinux users might find helpful.

For administrators, the new features of the recent 6.0.4+r0 release includes a new web-based LDAP administration tool. Other new features for printers are designed to save power and reduce waste, such as a default flush of print queues every night and having client machines automatically turn off at night and on again in the morning. In addition, stopped printer queues are restarted in an hour by default in case the printer was turned off accidentally.

For users, Skolelinux defaults to KDE, but GNOME, LXDE, and Sugar are also available as desktop environments. Installations include a much larger selection of software than standard Debian installations do, including KDE applications such as Amarok, Marble, and K3B, and other standard applications such as Inkscape, Scribus, and (not LibreOffice, since Debian stable has not yet switched).

Other installed software is heavily oriented toward education and creativity. The ever-popular Compris is included in the Favorites menu, while the Education menu includes everything from software for learning the alphabet and fractions to software for learning geometry and graph analysis. A drum machine and Rosegarden are included for musicians, as well as a chess game and at least two typing tutors.

Some might complain about the version numbers on Skolelinux's software, since they are based on Debian stable, and some are far from the latest available. However, Skolelinux has chosen stability over the cutting edge, as system administrators would generally prefer.

In addition, as Reinholdtsen points out, the emphasis on stability minimizes the chances of a disruption of service during the school year. Although the emphasis may mean that drivers are unavailable for some newer hardware, he suggested that "we have found a reasonably good balance between stability and offering the latest software."

My one quibble with the selection of user software is that it covers the complete range of pre-university educational software. This choice is perhaps suitable for schools that cover a wide range of students. Yet inevitably it means that much of the software will be irrelevant for any specific class. Perhaps a solution might be the ability to install educational software by age or ability. But, in general, Skolelinux offers an impressive showcase of educational software.

Helping a veteran

Officially, Skolelinux is a Debian Pure Blend — a distribution that is a subset of general Debian and remains compatible with it. However, unless you are doing a standalone installation, setting up Skolelinux is not a trivial task. Given the number of flavors that it supports and the fact that multiple-machine setups are the norm, Skolelinux might more realistically be described as several distributions in one — including some with conflicting needs and priorities. The quality of the documentation mitigates this complexity to a large degree, but the instructions still contain assumptions about users' knowledge that may be unwarranted.

Still, what is noticeable about Skolelinux is not that there are gaps in the documentation, but that there are so few. In fact, another educational aspect of Skolelinux is that it could serve as a distribution for training sysadmins about networks and thin clients.

More than anything else, this reduction of complexity to clarity is what makes Skolelinux a pioneer and continuing innovator in free software and education but still relevant today. The project is currently fundraising, so one way to help this veteran project would be to make a donation to help ensure that its annual meeting of core developers can take place this year.

Comments (1 posted)

Brief items

Distribution quotes of the week

Since debian-devel is the perfect place for bad comparisons: you’re saying that those wanting to replace cars by teleporters would have to worry about traffic lights and speed limits.
-- Josselin Mouette

The current state of upstart in Debian is a reflection of the upstart maintainers' respect for Debian and desire to not destabilize the distribution by triggering an avalanche of package conversions that could quickly take us past the point of no return for bit rot of our init scripts. If there's a consensus in Debian that we should just push it in and Damn The Ports, well, we could certainly do that.

Alternatively, instead of thousands of words being wasted in this thread, interested DDs could help with finalizing the Policy change for how upstart jobs should coexist with sysvinit scripts on the system.

-- Steve Langasek

Comments (none posted)

Distribution News

Debian GNU/Linux

Bits from the Apache Maintainers / Upcoming apache2 2.4 transition

The Debian Apache maintainers have a few bits about the apache2 2.4 transition. The package is currently in Experimental and the maintainers hope to get it into unstable in early April.

Full Story (comments: none)

Report from the Front desk and DAM sprint

Jan Hauke Rahm has a report on the recent front desk and Debian Account Managers (DAM) meeting in Germany. "If you've followed what the team, Enrico in particular, has been doing in the last months, you'll know that there was some intention to replace the current NM web interface. Due to security concerns that were brought to public attention just recently, we decided that it's time to actually replace the code."

Full Story (comments: none)

Newsletters and articles of interest

Distribution newsletters

Comments (none posted)

Scientific Linux, the Great Distro With the Wrong Name ( takes a look at Scientific Linux. "Scientific Linux has bundled a nice toolset for making custom spins the easy way. The package group is SL Spin Creation, and you get nice tools like LiveUSB Creator and Revisor (figure 2.) In fact, SL was designed with custom spins in mind; spins have their own unique features, but all of them are compatible. There is even a naming convention: Scientific Linux followed by the name of the institution. For example if I made one I would call it Scientific Linux LCR, for Little Critter Ranch."

Comments (11 posted)

Gimme A Light Linux from Vector (7.0) (ZDNet UK)

ZDNet UK covers the options available with the recent release of Vector Linux 7.0 Light. "LXDE, the "Full" option, with the well-known and very popular desktop manager, and pretty much the equivalent of a lot of other LXDE distributions. Still "lightweight", compared to Gnome and KDE, but certainly a lot more comfortable out of the box than the other options. In fact, if you choose this option you also get the Medium option as well, so you can switch back to plain Openbox if you want/need to or are just curious." That's the heaviest of Light options, which also include JWM "Barebones", IceWM "Light", and the Openbox "Medium" option.

Comments (none posted)

Page editor: Rebecca Sobol


Taskwarrior 2.0: A command-line task list manager

March 28, 2012

This article was contributed by Koen Vervloesem

Until a few months ago, I hadn't found a good tool to handle a task list and track my time. Several were tried, but none of them could handle all the requirements to my satisfaction: the tool should be usable on the command line with straightforward commands that are easy to memorize, it should be able to use the same task data on different machines without having to install and maintain a dynamic website, the tool should be able to track the time I spend on tasks and projects, and it shouldn't force me to follow a specific time management philosophy such as Getting Things Done or the Pomodoro Technique.


At the beginning of this year, during my annual and always unsuccessful New Year's resolution to manage my time more efficiently, I tried a beta version of Taskwarrior 2.0. While it isn't perfect, it turns out that Taskwarrior is right for my use case. This command-line task list manager maintains a list of tasks that you can add, remove and annotate at will. It has a rich list of sub-commands to do advanced things with your tasks, including reports, charts, time tracking, and so on, and it is extensible with Lua scripts. After a year of development, version 2.0.0 has now been released.

Version 2.0 still has to trickle down to the repositories of various Linux distributions, but you can download the source and compile it (it has been tested on various Linux distributions, the BSDs, Solaris, Mac OS X, and Cygwin) or use the binary packages for i386 Debian 6, Ubuntu 11.10, or Fedora 16. Older versions are available in many repositories, but Taskwarrior 2.0 has added significant changes and changed the command-line syntax, so it's probably worthwhile to temporarily use a 2.0 downloaded from the project's web site until your distribution's repository updates its Taskwarrior package to 2.0.

Easy to learn

[Task list]

The first time you enter task in a terminal, it prompts to create an initial ~/.taskrc file, which has default settings and comments. After that, a task help command gives you a daunting list of sub-commands, syntax, and examples, but despite this apparent complexity the basics of Taskwarrior are quite easy to grasp if you follow the project's excellent documentation. The place to start is the 30-second tutorial which teaches you how how to add, list and delete tasks, set a specific priority to a task, and to mark it as done. These are easily memorizable commands like task add, task ls, task <ID> delete, and task <ID> done.

While the 30-second tutorial teaches you the most important Taskwarrior sub-commands, there's a lot more to the program, which would be difficult to find out on your own only from reading the man pages. Luckily, there's a long tutorial as well. After the basic usage, it explains projects, priorities, tags, undo and delete, information about tasks, statistics, annotations, due dates, calendars, and so on. For instance, when your tasks have due dates, you can see them highlighted on a calendar with task calendar. The program even provides sample holiday files for a couple of countries. If you include the holiday file in your ~/.taskrc, holidays are shown in another color on your calendar.

Advanced functionality

The second part of the tutorial handles some advanced uses of Taskwarrior. Some of the topics are tasks that are recurring weekly, monthly, or yearly, waiting tasks (tasks with a due date far out into the future that remain hidden until a certain date to not clutter your task list), dependencies between tasks, reports and time sheets, monthly and yearly charts, a summary showing your progress in all projects and sub-projects, filters, and import and export in CSV, YAML, vCalendar, or JSON format. It pays to follow both tutorials and try their examples before you start using Taskwarrior, and you should probably read them again after having used Taskwarrior for a while. There's also a gallery with some video tutorials, as well as some HOWTOs about specific functionality.

One particular interesting feature of Taskwarrior is the built-in synchronization functionality, which lets you backup, restore and synchronize task lists using ssh or rsync to share the same task list on multiple machines. So you can backup your local task list to a remote machine with a task push command, restore it with a task pull command, and merge a local and remote task list with task merge. Of course you can configure Taskwarrior to store its data (by default in the directory ~/.task/) in a Dropbox folder or any other directory that is synchronized between your machines, but the advantage of Taskwarrior's built-in synchronization feature is that it doesn't require you to install any third-party synchronization software; ssh access to a remote machine is enough. Note that the ~/.taskrc configuration file isn't synchronized by this method, just the data in ~/.task/.

Configurable and extensible

Taskwarrior is highly configurable. A task show command shows more than 200 configuration variables you can set in the ~/.taskrc file with their current value. Variables that you have changed from the default values are highlighted in color. The colors for many types of information can also be changed in the configuration file, or you can use one of the several standard color themes.

You can also add your own variables to the configuration file, for instance to create custom reports with specific columns, labels, sorting order, and filters. The custom reports you add even show up in the help output of the task command and you can run it as a sub-command, just like the default reports. Taskwarrior 2.0 also adds the possibility of extending the program's functionality with Lua scripts, but unfortunately this is not documented yet.


Beginning with version 2.0, Taskwarrior has been re-licensed from GPLv2+ to the more permissive MIT license. One of the reasons the developers cite is that using the MIT license won't require that all plugins that ship with Taskwarrior be GPL compatible, which had to be done in the past. Another reason they cite is that "certain app stores don't accept GPL licensed software".

The developers welcome changes and give an overview of how you can contribute. There's a big issues list with feature requests and bug reports and the project has some big-picture architectural plans. For instance, they are working on a task server that will support synchronizing task data and later group collaboration. This task server will also be able to send out reminder notices for tasks that are due.

There's also a lot of development happening on Taskwarrior extensions and external scripts. One example is Taskhelm, a graphical interface for Taskwarrior. Other ones are VITtk, which is a vi-like interface for Taskwarrior, the web interface Taskwarrior-web, as well as some conversion tools.

As a nice illustration of the development activity, the development of Taskwarrior 2.0 has been visualized by the software version control visualization tool Gource. The data was extracted and visualized from the project's Git repository and converted to a YouTube video.

Polished and frictionless

Taskwarrior will not appeal to everyone, but if you're spending a lot of time at the command line, it offers a frictionless window to your task list. It's always available because you don't have to switch to another window or open a specific web site. With an alias t=task in your ~/.bashrc, a couple of key presses are enough to view your current tasks and track your time. Of course it requires some time to get to know the right commands, but they are straightforward and the documentation and man pages (task, taskrc, task-color, task-faq, task-sync and task-tutorial) are excellent and comprehensive.

Comments (2 posted)

Brief items

Quotes of the week

In any case, I feel that I have succeeded in constructively disrupting an aspect of my work culture that made me uncomfortable. This is the first personal project I’ve ever thought of, coded, and made public, and I am pretty excited about it! It makes me so happy every time the other bot says “that’s what she said,” and my bot responds with something like:

Our struggle today is not to have a female Einstein get appointed as an assistant professor. It is for a woman schlemiel to get as quickly promoted as a male schlemiel. ~ Bella Abzug
-- Jessamyn Smith

There's a lot of code in glibc that I think could be very validly worked on by "random" people, and I suspect that glibc is a project that would really do rather well by itself with "drive-by contributions" from developers who really have no interest in glibc itself, but that were bitten by bugs or just performance issues while they were working on whatever project that they are really associated with.

That's certainly how I personally sent in a patch or two to glibc.

-- Linus Torvalds (in the comments)

Comments (3 posted)

Cairo 1.12.0 released

Version 1.12.0 of the Cairo graphics library is out. "The major feature of this release is the introduction of a new procedural pattern; the mesh gradient. This, albeit complex, gradient is constructed from a set of cubic Bezier patches and is a superset of all other gradient surfaces which allows for the construction of incredibily detailed patterns." There is also an X XCB backend, a lot of performance improvements, and more.

Full Story (comments: none)

Django 1.4 released

Version 1.4 of the Django web framework has been released. Improvements include proper time zone support, various security improvements, and more; see the release notes for details.

Comments (none posted)

GCC celebrates 25 years with the 4.7.0 release

GCC 4.7.0 is out; it is being designated as a celebration of GCC's first 25 years.

When Richard Stallman announced the first public release of GCC in 1987, few could have imagined the broad impact that it has had. It has prototyped many language features that later were adopted as part of their respective standards -- everything from "long long" type to transactional memory. It deployed an architecture-neutral automatic vectorization facility, OpenMP, and Polyhedral loop nest optimization. It has provided the toolchain infrastructure for the GNU/Linux ecosystem used everywhere from Google and Facebook to financial markets and stock exchanges. We salute and thank the hundreds of developers who have contributed over the years to make GCC one of the most long-lasting and successful free software projects in the history of this industry.

New features include software transactional memory support, more C11 and C++11 standard features, OpenMP 3.1 support, better link-time optimization, and support for a number of new processor architectures. See the GCC 4.7 changes page for lots more information.

Full Story (comments: 50)

Go version 1 released

Version 1 of the "Go" programming language has been released. "Go 1 introduces changes to the language (such as new types for Unicode characters and errors) and the standard library (such as the new time package and renamings in the strconv package). Also, the package hierarchy has been rearranged to group related items together, such as moving the networking facilities, for instance the rpc package, into subdirectories of net." Lots of details can be found in the Go 1 release notes.

Comments (44 posted)

GNOME 3.4 released

The GNOME 3.4 release is out. "GNOME 3.4 is the second major update of GNOME 3. It builds on the foundations that we have laid with 3.0 and 3.2 and offers a greatly enhanced experience. The exciting new features and improvements in this release include a new virtual machine and remote access application, a completely revamped web browsing user experience, integrated document search, first-class web applications, better graphics tablet support, application menus, and many more." See the release notes for information and screenshots.

Full Story (comments: 122)

GTK+ 3.4.0 released

As a sign of the approaching GNOME 3.4 release, version 3.4.0 of the GTK+ library is now available. Improvements include menu support in the GtkApplication class, a new color chooser, improved touch support, smooth scrolling support, a better Wayland backend, and more.

Full Story (comments: 61)

Changes in glibc development

Roland McGrath has sent out an announcement that the glibc steering committee, which oversaw development of the GNU C library, is dissolving. "With the recent reinvigoration of volunteer efforts, the community of developers is now able to govern itself. Therefore, the Steering Committee has decided unanimously to dissolve. The direction and policies of the project will now be governed directly by the consensus of the people active in glibc development." Joseph Myers, one of the volunteers who has helped to pick things up again, has added: "Everyone is welcome to join in the development, working in accordance with community-agreed practices and GNU policy, and commit access is routinely available for people making good contributions." He has also suggested that, over time, the eglibc fork may be merged back in to glibc. (Thanks to Michael Kerrisk).

Comments (32 posted)

GNU libc 2.15 released

Version 2.15 of the GNU C library (glibc) is available. Some new functions have been added, a number of bugs have been fixed, and quite a bit of optimization work has been done.

Full Story (comments: 79)

XBMC 11.0 released

Version 11.0 of the XBMC media center application has been released. "XBMC 11.0 Milestones include Addon Rollbacks, vast improvements in Confluence (the default skin), massive speed increases via features like Dirty-region rendering and the new JPEG decoder, a simpler, better library, movie set scraping, additional protocol handling, better networking support, better handling of unencrypted BluRay content and structures, adjustable display refresh rate in OSX (to match the already available feature in Windows and Linux), AirPlay support, an upgraded weather service with geoip lookup, and much, much more. " (LWN reviewed this release in February).

Comments (2 posted)

Newsletters and articles

Development newsletters from the last week

Comments (none posted)

Building a GSM network with open source (The H)

The H has posted a look at the OpenBTS and OpenBSC projects. "The next stroke of genius came in [OpenBTS's] approach to engineering the air interface. In a proprietary base transceiver station (BTS) this would typically be done via a heady mix of analogue and digital circuitry that takes cares of things such as time division multiplex, complex modulation and high accuracy timing. However, in OpenBTS these and many other tasks are handled in the digital domain and by software running on a commodity processor. This move massively simplified hardware requirements and made just about everything a software problem, as opposed to one of reasonably advanced electronic engineering involving many specialist parts."

Comments (14 posted)

Page editor: Jonathan Corbet


Articles of interest

LibreOffice developers demo collaborative editing prototype (ars technica)

Ryan Paul takes a quick look at experimental collaborative editing capabilities in LibreOffice. "Telepathy is an open source instant messaging framework that supports multiple protocols. One of the key features of Telepathy is that it allows instant messaging protocols to be used as a medium for arbitrary communication between applications, like a form of real-time network IPC. Building LibreOffice's collaborative editing features on top of Telepathy eliminates the need to operate special servers for the purpose."

Comments (13 posted)

FSFE: Fellowship Interview with Guido Günther

The Fellowship of the Free Software Foundation Europe has an interview with Guido Günther. "Guido Günther joined the Debian Project while completing his degree in physics at the University of Konstanz. He helped with development of Debian for new processor architectures, and co-initiated Debian’s Groupware Meetings. He also enjoys contributing to the GNOME project, and advanced Free Software virtualisation technologies. He works as a professional Free Software developer and consultant."

Comments (none posted)

Enforcing the GPL with Judo moves (The H)

The H has posted a lengthy article about GPL enforcement inspired by the discussions from earlier this year. "Behind the the headline stories of litigation lies a calmer reality, where the great majority of companies who are notified by SFC or are happy to comply without a fuss, because the software works for them, and gives them reductions in cost, speed to market, collaborative opportunities and access to high quality code."

Comments (76 posted)

Nonprofit open source organizations booming (ITworld)

Over at ITworld, Brian Proffitt looks into revenue and salaries at various open source non-profit organizations. "With a revenue of $1,934,659, the Mozilla Foundation ranked fourth of the eighteen FLOSS-related non-profits researched for this report. But with a net cash flow loss of $1,333,815 for the 2010 fiscal year, the Mozilla Foundation was next to last on money lost for the year. [...] All of this information was obtained from the Federal income tax forms all U.S. non-profits are required to file with the IRS. Specifically, Form 990 (or the 990-EZ when applicable). Thirteen of the non-profits have publicly available information for their 2010 fiscal years, with the other five's information only up to date to their respective 2009 fiscal years."

Comments (3 posted)

Prometheus bound: An important precedent for the next software patent case (

Red Hat's assistant general counsel Rob Tiller writes about the implications of a recent US Supreme Court decision in Mayo Collaborative Services v. Prometheus Laboratories, Inc. [PDF]. He looks at the possible impact on software patent decisions down the road. "It also seems noteworthy that the Mayo Court outlined a balanced view of the patent system that took account of the risks it can pose for innovation. It wrote, 'Patent protection is, after all, a two-edged sword. On the one hand, the promise of exclusive rights provides monetary incentives that lead to creation, invention, and discovery. On the other hand, that very exclusivity can impede the flow of information that might permit, indeed spur, invention, by, for example, raising the price of using the patented ideas once created, requiring potential users to conduct costly and time-consuming searches of existing patents and pending patent applications, and requiring the negotiation of complex licensing arrangements.'"

Comments (4 posted)

Contests and Awards

1&1 Internet AG receives German Document Freedom Award

1&1, GMX and WEB.DE have received the German Document Freedom Award for the use of Open Standards. "The prize is awarded by the Free Software Foundation Europe (FSFE) and the Foundation for a Free Information Infrastructure e.V. (FFII). 1&1 is awarded for automatically adding XMPP for all customers of their mail services. The Document Freedom Award is awarded annually on the occasion of Document Freedom Day - the international day for Open Standards. Last years winners include, Deutschland Radio, and the German Foreign Office."

Full Story (comments: none)

Calls for Presentations

Linux Plumbers Conference call for proposals

The Linux Plumbers Conference (LPC) will be held August 29-31, 2012 in San Diego, California. The Planning Committee for LPC has announced a call for refereed-track proposals. "Refereed-track presentations are about 45 minutes in length, and should focus on a specific aspect of the "plumbing" in the Linux system. The Linux system's plumbing includes kernel subsystems, core libraries, windowing systems, management tools, media creation/playback, and so on."

Full Story (comments: none)

Upcoming Events

sambaXP 2012: Samba 4 and AD for Linux

samba eXPerience 2012 will take place May 8-11 in Göttingen, Germany. "This year's event is about CIFS, clustering and directories again - but with the difference that the first releases of Samba 4 is available in real business offerings: A Samba 4 ready Debian is available at SerNet for free."

Full Story (comments: none)

OpenCms Days 2012 - Conference and Expo

OpenCms Days 2012 will take place September 24-25 in Cologne, Germany. "This year's conference motto is "OpenCms 8 – Experiences, Possibilities, Potentials". This 4th annual gathering of OpenCms users will focus on success stories and projects based on OpenCms 8. Experts from all around the world will share their experiences with this latest OpenCms release. Alkacon will also unveil Version 8.5 of its successful open source website content management system OpenCms which will contain several enhancements."

Full Story (comments: none)

Events: March 29, 2012 to May 28, 2012

The following event listing is taken from the Calendar.

March 26
March 29
EclipseCon 2012 Washington D.C., USA
March 26
April 1
Wireless Battle of the Mesh (V5) Athens, Greece
March 28
March 29
Palmetto Open Source Software Conference 2012 Columbia, South Carolina, USA
March 29 Program your own open source system-on-a-chip (OpenRISC) London, UK
March 30 PGDay DC 2012 Sterling, VA, USA
April 2 PGDay NYC 2012 New York, NY, USA
April 3
April 5
LF Collaboration Summit San Francisco, CA, USA
April 5
April 6
Android Open San Francisco, CA, USA
April 10
April 12
Percona Live: MySQL Conference and Expo 2012 Santa Clara, CA, United States
April 12
April 19
SuperCollider Symposium London, UK
April 12
April 15
Linux Audio Conference 2012 Stanford, CA, USA
April 12
April 13
European LLVM Conference London, UK
April 13 Drizzle Day Santa Clara, CA, USA
April 16
April 18
OpenStack "Folsom" Design Summit San Francisco, CA, USA
April 17
April 19
Workshop on Real-time, Embedded and Enterprise-Scale Time-Critical Systems Paris, France
April 19
April 20
OpenStack Conference San Francisco, CA, USA
April 21 international Openmobility conference 2012 Prague, Czech Republic
April 23
April 25
Luster User Group Austin, Tx, USA
April 25
April 28
Evergreen International Conference 2012 Indianapolis, Indiana
April 27
April 29
Penguicon Dearborn, MI, USA
April 28 Linuxdays Graz 2012 Graz, Austria
April 28
April 29
LinuxFest Northwest 2012 Bellingham, WA, USA
May 2
May 5
Libre Graphics Meeting 2012 Vienna, Austria
May 3
May 5
Utah Open Source Conference Orem, Utah, USA
May 7
May 9
Tizen Developer Conference San Francisco, CA , USA
May 7
May 11
Ubuntu Developer Summit - Q Oakland, CA, USA
May 8
May 11
samba eXPerience 2012 Göttingen, Germany
May 11
May 12
Professional IT Community Conference 2012 New Brunswick, NJ, USA
May 11
May 13
Debian BSP in York York, UK
May 13
May 18
C++ Now! Aspen, CO, USA
May 17
May 18
PostgreSQL Conference for Users and Developers Ottawa, Canada
May 22
May 24
Military Open Source Software - Atlantic Coast Charleston, SC, USA
May 23
May 25
Croatian Linux Users' Convention Zagreb, Croatia
May 23
May 26
LinuxTag Berlin, Germany
May 25
May 26
Flossie 2012 London, UK

If your event does not appear here, please tell us about it.

Page editor: Rebecca Sobol

Copyright © 2012, Eklektix, Inc.
Comments and public postings are copyrighted by their creators.
Linux is a registered trademark of Linus Torvalds