You get an arbitrary file. Tridge suggests that (so far) he hasn't gotten complaints about this kind of behavior (which already exists in Samba), and there are few good alternatives. One possible alternative, to try to keep track of which files are created by Posix systems, and which are created by Windows systems, and preferentially decide between the two, seems like too much work if no one really cares.
The whole case insensitivity issue of Windows is (apparently) a mess, and there appears to be no perfect policy about what to do when interoperating, other than try to do the thing which makes most practical sense.
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