The code is checking for various conditions, with the checks returning success or failure, and the code itself needing to propagate success or failure. Having a function called check_if_ca() throw an exception from the checks it's doing, would be like having a string comparison function that threw if the strings weren't equal, or a character classification function throwing if the character you passed it didn't fall into the right category. It's just not the way you ought to handle that sort of "error".
You can very well argue that having strcmp() return 0 for a match, and non-0 for failure, where isdigit() returns non-zero for a match and 0 for a failure, is confusing, inconsistent, and ought to be changed. You might even be right. But (IMNSHO) changing them to throw on failure would be an even bigger mistake.
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