A National Security Letter is for matters of national security, and I doubt that would apply to any non-criminal investigation. In any case, it wouldn't apply to most of them.
A discovery request goes to the other party a lawsuit, and Google isn't talking about cases in which Google is a party.
What Google would require in the case of the non-criminal investigation is a subpoena coupled with a court order to compel compliance. Though Google doesn't mention that, we can assume Google would comply with such a court order since it has even more due process than a search warrant and treads far more lightly on the subject's rights than a search warrant (a search warrant gives the police license to go through your stuff; the subpoena just tells you to to do the search yourself).
What Google is announcing it will ignore is a subpoena without the order to compel compliance. Such a subpoena doesn't come from a judge.
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