Since the CAN bus includes the over-the-wire protocol as well as the electrical requriements, the fact that it doesn't even have the concept of sender ID is a major problem.
Yes, everything could add it's own authentication in the messages, but that is just layering another protocol on top of CAN, and getting all vendors to agree to it would not be trivial.
Switching to a different network protocol (say IP) would then enable a LOT of standard authentication, firewalling, etc tools to be used. Yes, mistakes can still be made, but given standard tools they are less likely.
One thing to remember is that when the CAN bus was created, it took a rather expensive system to run an IP stack. Nowdays this can be done on very cheap hardware.
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