If something has a 20% duty cycle, and you are randomly sampling, you expect to see the something in that special state in about 1 out of 5 samples. It doesn't matter if the average cycle time is 37 milliseconds or 20 microseconds.
If the throttling code, only throttles back 20%, then things are probably running just fine. A nightmare situation, such as running a web browser from 2011 swapping to a thumbdrive designed in 2006, would more likely have the process generating dirty pages for less than 10ms, then being put to sleep for 200ms. This would give the observer less than a 5% chance of witnessing the process while it was "awake".
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