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UBI: new module ubiblk: block layer on top of UBI

From:  David Wagner <david.wagner@free-electrons.com>
To:  linux-mtd@lists.infradead.org
Subject:  [PATCH] UBI: new module ubiblk: block layer on top of UBI
Date:  Tue, 26 Jul 2011 14:27:30 +0200
Message-ID:  <1311683250-7921-1-git-send-email-david.wagner@free-electrons.com>
Cc:  dedekind1@gmail.com, dwmw2@infradead.org, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, linux-embedded@vger.kernel.org, tim.bird@am.sony.com, David Wagner <david.wagner@free-electrons.com>
Archive-link:  Article

ubiblk is a read-only block layer on top of UBI.  It presents UBI volumes as
read-only block devices.

It is used by putting a block filesystem image on a UBI volume and then mounting
the corresponding device (/dev/ubiblkX_Y where X is the UBI device number and Y
the volume ID).

It uses the UBI API to register to UBI notifications (to dynamically create and
delete devices as volumes are added or removed) and to read from the volumes.

Some code is taken from mtd_blkdevs and gluebi

TODO:
 * the modules keeps a table of the devices which length is the maximum number
   of UBI volumes.  It should make use of a linked list.

Signed-off-by: David Wagner <david.wagner@free-electrons.com>
---

updates from v2:

 * Added copyright information
 * Simplify the do_ubiblk_request loop
 * Fix a crash at module exit

Advantages of ubiblk over gluebi+mtdblock_ro:

 * Simpler architecture

 * The numbering of devices is much easier with ubiblk than with
   gluebi+mtdblock_ro. With gluebi+mtdblock_ro, you get one additional
   MTD device for each UBI volume, so the number of MTD devices grows
   quite a lot and is a bit difficult to understand. For example,
   mtdblock[0-4] might be your real MTD partitions, while mtdblock[5-9]
   might be your UBI volumes.
   It also means that if a new real MTD
   partition is added, the number of all the MTD devices exposing UBI
   volumes will be incremented by one, which is a bit
   confusing/annoying.
   As well, if you add an UBI volume, the mtdblock devices that are
   emulated on top of volumes that come after this new one will have
   their ID incremented.

 * The performance appears to be slightly better with ubiblk than
   gluebi+mtdblock_ro, according to our benchmarks (see
   http://elinux.org/Flash_Filesystem_Benchmarks_2.6.39)



 drivers/mtd/ubi/Kconfig  |   12 +
 drivers/mtd/ubi/Makefile |    1 +
 drivers/mtd/ubi/ubiblk.c |  556 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 3 files changed, 569 insertions(+), 0 deletions(-)
 create mode 100644 drivers/mtd/ubi/ubiblk.c

diff --git a/drivers/mtd/ubi/Kconfig b/drivers/mtd/ubi/Kconfig
index 4dcc752..d19508b 100644
--- a/drivers/mtd/ubi/Kconfig
+++ b/drivers/mtd/ubi/Kconfig
@@ -60,4 +60,16 @@ config MTD_UBI_DEBUG
 	help
 	  This option enables UBI debugging.
 
+config MTD_UBI_UBIBLK
+	tristate "Read-only block transition layer on top of UBI"
+	help
+	   Read-only block interface on top of UBI.
+
+	   This option adds ubiblk, which creates a read-ony block device for
+	   each UBI volume.  It makes it possible to use block filesystems on
+	   top of UBI (and thus, on top of MTDs while avoiding bad blocks).
+
+	   The devices are named ubiblkX_Y where X is the UBI number and Y is
+	   the Volume ID.
+
 endif # MTD_UBI
diff --git a/drivers/mtd/ubi/Makefile b/drivers/mtd/ubi/Makefile
index c9302a5..354b2df 100644
--- a/drivers/mtd/ubi/Makefile
+++ b/drivers/mtd/ubi/Makefile
@@ -5,3 +5,4 @@ ubi-y += misc.o
 
 ubi-$(CONFIG_MTD_UBI_DEBUG) += debug.o
 obj-$(CONFIG_MTD_UBI_GLUEBI) += gluebi.o
+obj-$(CONFIG_MTD_UBI_UBIBLK) += ubiblk.o
diff --git a/drivers/mtd/ubi/ubiblk.c b/drivers/mtd/ubi/ubiblk.c
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bbf5b84
--- /dev/null
+++ b/drivers/mtd/ubi/ubiblk.c
@@ -0,0 +1,556 @@
+/*
+ * Copyright (c) Free Electrons, 2011
+ * Copyright (c) International Business Machines Corp., 2006
+ * Copyright © 2003-2010 David Woodhouse <dwmw2@infradead.org>
+ *
+ * This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
+ * it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
+ * the Free Software Foundation; either version 2 of the License, or
+ * (at your option) any later version.
+ *
+ * This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
+ * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
+ * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See
+ * the GNU General Public License for more details.
+ *
+ * You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
+ * along with this program; if not, write to the Free Software
+ * Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307 USA
+ *
+ * Author: David Wagner
+ * Some code taken from gluebi.c (Artem Bityutskiy (Битюцкий Артём),
+ *                                Joern Engel)
+ * Some code taken from mtd_blkdevs.c (David Woodhouse)
+ */
+
+#include <linux/module.h>
+#include <linux/kernel.h>
+#include <linux/vmalloc.h>
+#include <linux/mtd/ubi.h>
+#include <linux/blkdev.h>
+#include <linux/kthread.h>
+#include <linux/mutex.h>
+#include "ubi.h"
+
+#define BLK_SIZE 512
+
+#define UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS (UBI_MAX_DEVICES * UBI_MAX_VOLUMES)
+
+/*
+ * Structure representing a ubiblk device, proxying a UBI volume
+ */
+struct ubiblk_dev {
+	struct ubi_volume_desc *vol_desc;
+	struct ubi_volume_info *vol_info;
+	int ubi_num;
+	int vol_id;
+
+	/* Block stuff */
+	struct gendisk *gd;
+	struct request_queue *rq;
+	struct task_struct *thread;
+
+	/* Protects the access to the UBI volume */
+	struct mutex lock;
+
+	/* Avoids concurrent accesses to the request queue */
+	spinlock_t queue_lock;
+};
+
+/*
+ * Contains the pointers to all ubiblk_dev instances
+ * TODO: use a linked list
+ */
+static struct ubiblk_dev *ubiblk_devs[UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS];
+static struct mutex devtable_lock;
+
+int major;
+static const struct block_device_operations ubiblk_ops;
+
+static struct ubiblk_dev *ubiblk_find_dev(struct ubi_volume_info *vol_info)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev;
+
+	mutex_lock(&devtable_lock);
+	for (i = 0; i < UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS; i++) {
+		dev = ubiblk_devs[i];
+		if (dev && dev->ubi_num == vol_info->ubi_num &&
+		    dev->vol_id == vol_info->vol_id)
+			break;
+	}
+	mutex_unlock(&devtable_lock);
+	if (i == UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS)
+		return NULL;
+	return dev;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Read a LEB and fill the request buffer with the requested sector
+ */
+static int do_ubiblk_request(struct request *req, struct ubiblk_dev *dev)
+{
+	unsigned long start, len, read_bytes;
+	int offset;
+	int leb;
+	int ret;
+
+	start = blk_rq_pos(req) << 9;
+	len = blk_rq_cur_bytes(req);
+	read_bytes = 0;
+
+	/* We are always reading. No need to handle writing for now */
+
+	leb = start / dev->vol_info->usable_leb_size;
+	offset = start % dev->vol_info->usable_leb_size;
+
+	do {
+		if (offset + len > dev->vol_info->usable_leb_size)
+			len = dev->vol_info->usable_leb_size - offset;
+
+		if (unlikely(blk_rq_pos(req) + blk_rq_cur_sectors(req) >
+		    get_capacity(req->rq_disk))) {
+			pr_err("UBIBLK: attempting to read too far\n");
+			return -EIO;
+		}
+
+		pr_debug("%s(%s) of sector %llu (LEB %d). offset=%d, len=%lu\n",
+			 __func__, rq_data_dir(req) ? "Write" : "Read",
+			 blk_rq_pos(req), leb, offset, len);
+
+		/* Read (len) bytes of LEB (leb) from (offset) and put the
+		 * result in the buffer given by the request.
+		 * If the request is overlapping on several lebs, (read_bytes)
+		 * will be > 0 and the data will be put in the buffer at
+		 * offset (read_bytes)
+		 */
+		ret = ubi_read(dev->vol_desc, leb, req->buffer + read_bytes,
+			       offset, len);
+
+		if (ret) {
+			pr_err("ubi_read error\n");
+			return ret;
+		}
+
+		read_bytes += len;
+
+		len = blk_rq_cur_bytes(req) - read_bytes;
+		leb++;
+		offset = 0;
+	} while (read_bytes < blk_rq_cur_bytes(req));
+
+	pr_debug("ubi_read done.\n");
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static void ubi_ubiblk_request(struct request_queue *rq)
+{
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev;
+	struct request *req = NULL;
+
+	dev = rq->queuedata;
+
+	if (!dev)
+		while ((req = blk_fetch_request(rq)) != NULL)
+			__blk_end_request_all(req, -ENODEV);
+	else
+		wake_up_process(dev->thread);
+}
+
+/*
+ * Open a UBI volume (get the volume descriptor)
+ */
+static int ubiblk_open(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode)
+{
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev = bdev->bd_disk->private_data;
+	pr_debug("%s() disk_name=%s, mode=%d\n", __func__,
+		 bdev->bd_disk->disk_name, mode);
+
+	dev->vol_desc = ubi_open_volume(dev->ubi_num, dev->vol_id,
+					UBI_READONLY);
+	if (!dev->vol_desc) {
+		pr_err("open_volume failed");
+		return -EINVAL;
+	}
+
+	dev->vol_info = kzalloc(sizeof(struct ubi_volume_info), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!dev->vol_info) {
+		ubi_close_volume(dev->vol_desc);
+		dev->vol_desc = NULL;
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+	ubi_get_volume_info(dev->vol_desc, dev->vol_info);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Close a UBI volume (close the volume descriptor)
+ */
+static int ubiblk_release(struct gendisk *gd, fmode_t mode)
+{
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev = gd->private_data;
+	pr_debug("%s() disk_name=%s, mode=%d\n", __func__, gd->disk_name, mode);
+
+	kfree(dev->vol_info);
+	dev->vol_info = NULL;
+	if (dev->vol_desc) {
+		ubi_close_volume(dev->vol_desc);
+		dev->vol_desc = NULL;
+	}
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Loop on the block request queue and wait for new requests ; run them with
+ * do_ubiblk_request()
+ *
+ * Mostly copied from mtd_blkdevs.c
+ */
+static int ubi_ubiblk_thread(void *arg)
+{
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev = arg;
+	struct request_queue *rq = dev->rq;
+	struct request *req = NULL;
+
+	spin_lock_irq(rq->queue_lock);
+
+	while (!kthread_should_stop()) {
+		int res;
+
+		if (!req && !(req = blk_fetch_request(rq))) {
+			set_current_state(TASK_INTERRUPTIBLE);
+
+			if (kthread_should_stop())
+				set_current_state(TASK_RUNNING);
+
+			spin_unlock_irq(rq->queue_lock);
+			schedule();
+			spin_lock_irq(rq->queue_lock);
+			continue;
+		}
+
+		spin_unlock_irq(rq->queue_lock);
+
+		mutex_lock(&dev->lock);
+		res = do_ubiblk_request(req, dev);
+		pr_debug("return from request: %d\n", res);
+		mutex_unlock(&dev->lock);
+
+		spin_lock_irq(rq->queue_lock);
+
+		if (!__blk_end_request_cur(req, res))
+			req = NULL;
+	}
+
+	if (req)
+		__blk_end_request_all(req, -EIO);
+
+	spin_unlock_irq(rq->queue_lock);
+
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * An UBI volume has been created ; create a corresponding ubiblk device:
+ * Initialize the locks, the structure, the block layer infos and start a
+ * thread.
+ */
+static int ubiblk_create(struct ubi_device_info *dev_info,
+			 struct ubi_volume_info *vol_info)
+{
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev;
+	struct gendisk *gd;
+	int i;
+	int ret = 0;
+
+	mutex_lock(&devtable_lock);
+	for (i = 0; i < UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS; i++)
+		if (!ubiblk_devs[i])
+			break;
+
+	if (i == UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS) {
+		/* Shouldn't happen: UBI can't make more volumes than that */
+		pr_err("no slot left for a new ubiblk device.\n");
+		mutex_unlock(&devtable_lock);
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+
+	dev = kzalloc(sizeof(struct ubiblk_dev), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!dev) {
+		pr_err("UBIBLK: ENOMEM when trying to create a new"
+		       "ubiblk dev\n");
+		mutex_unlock(&devtable_lock);
+		return -ENOMEM;
+	}
+	ubiblk_devs[i] = dev;
+	mutex_unlock(&devtable_lock);
+
+	mutex_init(&dev->lock);
+	mutex_lock(&dev->lock);
+
+	dev->ubi_num = vol_info->ubi_num;
+	dev->vol_id = vol_info->vol_id;
+
+	dev->vol_desc = ubi_open_volume(dev->ubi_num, dev->vol_id,
+					UBI_READONLY);
+	if (IS_ERR(dev->vol_desc)) {
+		pr_err("open_volume failed\n");
+		ret = PTR_ERR(dev->vol_desc);
+		goto out_vol;
+	}
+
+	dev->vol_info = kzalloc(sizeof(struct ubi_volume_info), GFP_KERNEL);
+	if (!dev->vol_info) {
+		ret = -ENOMEM;
+		goto out_info;
+	}
+	ubi_get_volume_info(dev->vol_desc, dev->vol_info);
+
+	pr_info("Got volume %s: device %d/volume %d of size %d\n",
+		dev->vol_info->name, dev->ubi_num, dev->vol_id,
+		dev->vol_info->size);
+
+	/* Initialize the gendisk of this ubiblk device */
+	gd = alloc_disk(1);
+	if (!gd) {
+		pr_err("alloc_disk failed\n");
+		ret = -ENODEV;
+		goto out_disk;
+	}
+
+	gd->fops = &ubiblk_ops;
+	gd->major = major;
+	gd->first_minor = dev->ubi_num * UBI_MAX_VOLUMES + dev->vol_id;
+	gd->private_data = dev;
+	sprintf(gd->disk_name, "ubiblk%d_%d", dev->ubi_num, dev->vol_id);
+	pr_debug("creating a gd '%s'\n", gd->disk_name);
+	set_capacity(gd,
+		     (dev->vol_info->size *
+		      dev->vol_info->usable_leb_size) >> 9);
+	set_disk_ro(gd, 1);
+	dev->gd = gd;
+
+	spin_lock_init(&dev->queue_lock);
+	dev->rq = blk_init_queue(ubi_ubiblk_request, &dev->queue_lock);
+	if (!dev->rq) {
+		pr_err("init_queue failed\n");
+		ret = -ENODEV;
+		goto out_queue;
+	}
+	dev->rq->queuedata = dev;
+	blk_queue_logical_block_size(dev->rq, BLK_SIZE);
+	dev->gd->queue = dev->rq;
+
+	/* Stolen from mtd_blkdevs.c */
+	/* Create processing thread
+	 *
+	 * The processing of the request has to be done in process context (it
+	 * might sleep) but blk_run_queue can't block ; so we need to separate
+	 * the event of a request being added to the queue (which triggers the
+	 * callback ubi_ubiblk_request - that is set with blk_init_queue())
+	 * and the processing of that request.
+	 *
+	 * Thus, the sole purpose of ubi_ubiblk_reuqest is to wake the kthread
+	 * up so that it will process the request queue
+	 */
+	dev->thread = kthread_run(ubi_ubiblk_thread, dev, "%s%d_%d",
+				  "kubiblk", dev->ubi_num, dev->vol_id);
+	if (IS_ERR(dev->thread)) {
+		ret = PTR_ERR(dev->thread);
+		goto out_thread;
+	}
+
+	add_disk(dev->gd);
+	kfree(dev->vol_info);
+	dev->vol_info = NULL;
+	ubi_close_volume(dev->vol_desc);
+	dev->vol_desc = NULL;
+	mutex_unlock(&dev->lock);
+
+	return 0;
+
+out_thread:
+	blk_cleanup_queue(dev->rq);
+out_queue:
+	put_disk(dev->gd);
+out_disk:
+	kfree(dev->vol_info);
+	dev->vol_info = NULL;
+out_info:
+	ubi_close_volume(dev->vol_desc);
+	dev->vol_desc = NULL;
+out_vol:
+	mutex_unlock(&dev->lock);
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * A UBI has been removed ; destroy the corresponding ubiblk device
+ */
+static int ubiblk_remove(struct ubi_volume_info *vol_info)
+{
+	int i;
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev;
+
+	mutex_lock(&devtable_lock);
+	for (i = 0; i < UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS; i++) {
+		dev = ubiblk_devs[i];
+		if (dev && dev->ubi_num == vol_info->ubi_num &&
+		    dev->vol_id == vol_info->vol_id)
+			break;
+	}
+	if (i == UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS) {
+		pr_warn("Trying to remove %s, which is unknown from ubiblk\n",
+			vol_info->name);
+		return -ENODEV;
+	}
+
+	pr_info("ubiblk: Removing %s\n", vol_info->name);
+
+	if (dev->vol_desc) {
+		ubi_close_volume(dev->vol_desc);
+		dev->vol_desc = NULL;
+	}
+
+	del_gendisk(dev->gd);
+	blk_cleanup_queue(dev->rq);
+	kthread_stop(dev->thread);
+	put_disk(dev->gd);
+
+	kfree(dev->vol_info);
+
+	kfree(ubiblk_devs[i]);
+	ubiblk_devs[i] = NULL;
+
+	mutex_unlock(&devtable_lock);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+static int ubiblk_resized(struct ubi_volume_info *vol_info)
+{
+	struct ubiblk_dev *dev;
+
+	dev = ubiblk_find_dev(vol_info);
+	if (!dev) {
+		pr_warn("Trying to resize %s, which is unknown from ubiblk\n",
+			vol_info->name);
+		return -ENODEV;
+	}
+
+	mutex_lock(&dev->lock);
+	set_capacity(dev->gd,
+		     (vol_info->size * vol_info->usable_leb_size) >> 9);
+	mutex_unlock(&dev->lock);
+	pr_debug("Resized ubiblk%d_%d to %d LEBs\n", vol_info->ubi_num,
+		 vol_info->vol_id, vol_info->size);
+	return 0;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Dispatches the UBI notifications
+ * copied from gluebi.c
+ */
+static int ubiblk_notify(struct notifier_block *nb,
+			 unsigned long notification_type, void *ns_ptr)
+{
+	struct ubi_notification *nt = ns_ptr;
+
+	switch (notification_type) {
+	case UBI_VOLUME_ADDED:
+		ubiblk_create(&nt->di, &nt->vi);
+		break;
+	case UBI_VOLUME_REMOVED:
+		ubiblk_remove(&nt->vi);
+		break;
+	case UBI_VOLUME_RESIZED:
+		ubiblk_resized(&nt->vi);
+		break;
+	case UBI_VOLUME_UPDATED:
+		break;
+	case UBI_VOLUME_RENAMED:
+		break;
+	default:
+		break;
+	}
+	return NOTIFY_OK;
+}
+
+static const struct block_device_operations ubiblk_ops = {
+	.owner = THIS_MODULE,
+	.open = ubiblk_open,
+	.release = ubiblk_release,
+};
+
+static struct notifier_block ubiblk_notifier = {
+	.notifier_call = ubiblk_notify,
+};
+
+/*
+ * Initialize the module
+ * (Get a major number and register to UBI notifications)
+ */
+static int __init ubi_ubiblk_init(void)
+{
+	int ret = 0;
+
+	pr_info("UBIBLK starting\n");
+
+	ret = register_blkdev(0, "ubiblk");
+	if (ret <= 0) {
+		pr_err("UBIBLK: could not register_blkdev\n");
+		return -ENODEV;
+	}
+	major = ret;
+	pr_info("UBIBLK: device's major: %d\n", major);
+
+	mutex_init(&devtable_lock);
+	ret = ubi_register_volume_notifier(&ubiblk_notifier, 0);
+	if (ret < 0)
+		unregister_blkdev(major, "ubiblk");
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * End of life
+ * unregister the block device major, unregister from UBI notifications,
+ * stop the threads and free the memory.
+ */
+static void __exit ubi_ubiblk_exit(void)
+{
+	int i;
+
+	pr_info("UBIBLK: going to exit\n");
+
+	ubi_unregister_volume_notifier(&ubiblk_notifier);
+
+	for (i = 0; i < UBIBLK_MAX_DEVS; i++) {
+		struct ubiblk_dev *dev = ubiblk_devs[i];
+		if (!dev)
+			continue;
+
+		if (dev->vol_desc)
+			ubi_close_volume(dev->vol_desc);
+
+		del_gendisk(dev->gd);
+		blk_cleanup_queue(dev->rq);
+		kthread_stop(dev->thread);
+		put_disk(dev->gd);
+
+		kfree(dev->vol_info);
+		kfree(ubiblk_devs[i]);
+	}
+
+	unregister_blkdev(major, "ubiblk");
+	pr_info("UBIBLK: The End\n");
+}
+
+module_init(ubi_ubiblk_init);
+module_exit(ubi_ubiblk_exit);
+MODULE_DESCRIPTION("Read-only block transition layer on top of UBI");
+MODULE_AUTHOR("David Wagner");
+MODULE_LICENSE("GPL");
-- 
1.7.0.4



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