ssh's model which Peter Gutmann calls the "baby-duck" model or "key continuity"
Web of Trust by Phil Zimmermann
The FreeS/WAN project by John Gilmore, Hugh Daniel et al., known as "Opportunistic Encryption".
The Capability Access Control model:
Zooko's Triangle and Pet Names:
(Those last three are self-citations.)
The overall theme here is that the good ideas about robust decentralized security came originally from systems researchers and hackers, not from cryptographers. Cryptographers traditionally focused on elegant mathematical models and (with almost no explicit justification) they settled on the globe-spanning, centralized, hierarchical security model that we all know and love today as "PKI".
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