That is, you can think of "stable storage" as a process that reads the filesystem sometimes, and, after a crash, repopulates it with what it read last, and that fsync will only return after one of these reads after when you call it. You don't know what "stable storage" read, and it can have all of the same sorts of race conditions and time skew that any other concurrent process can. If the filesystem matches some such snapshot, it's the user or application's carelessness if anything is lost; if the filesystem doesn't match any such snapshot, it's crash-related filesystem damage.
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