Can you this identify any of this "extra tooling" in assembly output from the compiler? Or are you just making it up? You can "imagine" all the "relative losses" you like, but that has nothing to do with the facts.
What is factual is that the extra code each programmer must insert in C code to return error codes, to check error codes, and to dispatch based on error codes compiles to actual instructions that must be executed on every function return. When errors are reported by exception, instead, none of those instructions are executed unless an error occurs. The difference has been measured as high as 15%. Now, 15% isn't very much in Moore's Law country, but it's not negligible. It's not a reason to choose one language over another, but it puts the lie to made-up claims that C++ code is slower than C.
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