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Time-based RFC 4122 UUID generator

From:  Helge Deller <deller@gmx.de>
To:  Andrew Morton <akpm@osdl.org>, linux-kernel@vger.kernel.org, Theodore Tso <tytso@mit.edu>
Subject:  [PATCH] Time-based RFC 4122 UUID generator
Date:  Sun, 18 Nov 2007 20:38:21 +0100
Message-ID:  <200711182038.22055.deller@gmx.de>

Andrew,

could you please consider adding this patch to your 2.6.25 patch series?

This is the third version of the patch in which I cleaned up and fixed quite some stuff according
to feedback from Ted.
I assume this version is OK, since I didn't received any further feedback since two weeks:
http://lkml.org/lkml/2007/11/4/128.

Thanks,
Helge
-------
Title: Add time-based RFC 4122 UUID generator

The current Linux kernel currently contains the generate_random_uuid() 
function, which creates - based on RFC 4122 - truly random UUIDs and 
provides them to userspace through /proc/sys/kernel/random/boot_id and 
/proc/sys/kernel/random/uuid.

This patch additionally adds the "Time-based UUID" variant of RFC 4122, 
with which userspace applications can easily get real unique time-based 
UUIDs through /proc/sys/kernel/random/uuid_time.
A new /proc/sys/kernel/random/uuid_time_clockseq sysfs entry is available,
so that the clock_seq value can be retained across system bootups (which
is required by RFC 4122).

The attached implementation uses getnstimeofday() to get very fine-grained
granularity. This helps, so that userspace tools can get a lot more UUIDs 
(if needed) per time than before.
A mutex takes care of the proper locking against a mistaken double creation 
of UUIDs for simultanious running processes.

Signed-off-by: Helge Deller <deller@gmx.de>

 drivers/char/random.c  |  205 ++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++-----
 include/linux/sysctl.h |    5 -
 2 files changed, 190 insertions(+), 20 deletions(-)

diff --git a/drivers/char/random.c b/drivers/char/random.c
index 5fee056..fc48c29 100644
--- a/drivers/char/random.c
+++ b/drivers/char/random.c
@@ -6,6 +6,9 @@
  * Copyright Theodore Ts'o, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999.  All
  * rights reserved.
  *
+ * Time based UUID (RFC 4122) generator:
+ * Copyright Helge Deller <deller@gmx.de>, 2007
+ *
  * Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without
  * modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions
  * are met:
@@ -239,6 +242,7 @@
 #include <linux/spinlock.h>
 #include <linux/percpu.h>
 #include <linux/cryptohash.h>
+#include <linux/if_arp.h>
 
 #include <asm/processor.h>
 #include <asm/uaccess.h>
@@ -1174,12 +1178,169 @@ EXPORT_SYMBOL(generate_random_uuid);
 static int min_read_thresh = 8, min_write_thresh;
 static int max_read_thresh = INPUT_POOL_WORDS * 32;
 static int max_write_thresh = INPUT_POOL_WORDS * 32;
-static char sysctl_bootid[16];
+static unsigned char sysctl_bootid[16] __read_mostly;
 
 /*
- * These functions is used to return both the bootid UUID, and random
- * UUID.  The difference is in whether table->data is NULL; if it is,
- * then a new UUID is generated and returned to the user.
+ * Helper functions and variables for time based UUID generator
+ */
+static unsigned int clock_seq;
+static const unsigned int clock_seq_max = 0x3fff; /* 14 bits */
+static int clock_seq_initialized __read_mostly;
+
+static void init_clockseq(void)
+{
+	get_random_bytes(&clock_seq, sizeof(clock_seq));
+	clock_seq &= clock_seq_max;
+	clock_seq_initialized = 1;
+}
+
+static int proc_dointvec_clockseq(struct ctl_table *table, int write,
+		struct file *filp, void __user *buffer,
+		size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)
+{
+	int ret;
+
+	if (!write && !clock_seq_initialized)
+		init_clockseq();
+
+	ret = proc_dointvec(table, write, filp, buffer, lenp, ppos);
+
+	if (write && ret >= 0) {
+		clock_seq_initialized = 1;
+		clock_seq &= clock_seq_max;
+	}
+
+	return ret;
+}
+
+/*
+ * Generate time based UUID (RFC 4122)
+ *
+ * This function is protected with a mutex to ensure system-wide
+ * uniqiness of the new time based UUID.
+ */
+static void generate_random_uuid_time(unsigned char uuid_out[16])
+{
+	static DEFINE_MUTEX(uuid_mutex);
+	static u64 last_time_all;
+	static unsigned int clock_seq_started;
+	static unsigned char last_mac[ETH_ALEN];
+
+	struct timespec ts;
+	u64 time_all;
+	unsigned char *found_mac = NULL;
+	struct net_device *d __maybe_unused;
+	int inc_clock_seq = 0;
+
+	mutex_lock(&uuid_mutex);
+
+	/* Get the spatially unique node identifier */
+#ifdef CONFIG_NET
+	read_lock(&dev_base_lock);
+	for_each_netdev(&init_net, d) {
+		if (d->type == ARPHRD_ETHER && d->addr_len == ETH_ALEN
+		    && d != init_net.loopback_dev) {
+			if (!memcmp(&last_mac, d->dev_addr, ETH_ALEN)) {
+				found_mac = last_mac;
+				break;
+			}
+			if (!found_mac)
+				found_mac = d->dev_addr;
+		}
+	}
+	if (found_mac)
+		memcpy(&uuid_out[10], found_mac, ETH_ALEN);
+	read_unlock(&dev_base_lock);
+#endif
+	if (unlikely(!found_mac)) {
+		/* use bootid's nodeID if no network interface found */
+		if (sysctl_bootid[8] == 0)
+			generate_random_uuid(sysctl_bootid);
+		memcpy(&uuid_out[10], &sysctl_bootid[10], ETH_ALEN);
+	}
+	/* if MAC/NodeID changed, create a new clock_seq value */
+	if (unlikely(found_mac != last_mac &&
+		     memcmp(&last_mac, &uuid_out[10], ETH_ALEN))) {
+			memcpy(&last_mac, &uuid_out[10], ETH_ALEN);
+			inc_clock_seq = 1;
+	}
+
+	/* Determine 60-bit timestamp value. For UUID version 1, this is
+	 * represented by Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) as a count of 100-
+	 * nanosecond intervals since 00:00:00.00, 15 October 1582 (the date of
+	 * Gregorian reform to the Christian calendar).
+	 */
+advance_time:
+	getnstimeofday(&ts);
+	time_all = ((u64) ts.tv_sec) * (NSEC_PER_SEC/100);
+	time_all += ts.tv_nsec / 100;
+
+	/* add offset from Gregorian Calendar to Jan 1 1970 */
+	time_all += 12219292800000ULL * (NSEC_PER_MSEC/100);
+	time_all &= 0x0fffffffffffffffULL; /* limit to 60 bits */
+
+	/* Determine clock sequence (max. 14 bit) */
+	if (unlikely(!clock_seq_initialized)) {
+		init_clockseq();
+		clock_seq_started = clock_seq;
+	} else {
+		if (unlikely(inc_clock_seq || time_all <= last_time_all)) {
+			clock_seq = (clock_seq+1) & clock_seq_max;
+			if (unlikely(clock_seq == clock_seq_started)) {
+				clock_seq = (clock_seq-1) & clock_seq_max;
+				goto advance_time;
+			}
+		} else
+			clock_seq_started = clock_seq;
+	}
+	last_time_all = time_all;
+
+	/* Fill in timestamp and clock_seq values */
+	uuid_out[3] = (u8) time_all;
+	uuid_out[2] = (u8) (time_all >> 8);
+	uuid_out[1] = (u8) (time_all >> 16);
+	uuid_out[0] = (u8) (time_all >> 24);
+	uuid_out[5] = (u8) (time_all >> 32);
+	uuid_out[4] = (u8) (time_all >> 40);
+	uuid_out[7] = (u8) (time_all >> 48);
+	uuid_out[6] = (u8) (time_all >> 56);
+
+	uuid_out[8] = clock_seq >> 8;
+	uuid_out[9] = clock_seq & 0xff;
+
+	/* Set UUID version to 1 --- time-based generation */
+	uuid_out[6] = (uuid_out[6] & 0x0F) | 0x10;
+	/* Set the UUID variant to DCE */
+	uuid_out[8] = (uuid_out[8] & 0x3F) | 0x80;
+
+	mutex_unlock(&uuid_mutex);
+}
+
+
+/*
+ * Get UUID based on requested type.
+ */
+static unsigned char *get_uuid(void *extra1, unsigned char *uuid)
+{
+	switch ((int) extra1) {
+	case RANDOM_BOOT_ID:
+		uuid = sysctl_bootid;
+		if (unlikely(uuid[8] == 0))
+			generate_random_uuid(uuid);
+		break;
+	case RANDOM_UUID:
+		generate_random_uuid(uuid);
+		break;
+	case RANDOM_UUID_TIME:
+		generate_random_uuid_time(uuid);
+		break;
+	}
+	return uuid;
+}
+
+/*
+ * These functions are used to return the bootid UUID, random UUID and
+ * time based UUID.
  *
  * If the user accesses this via the proc interface, it will be returned
  * as an ASCII string in the standard UUID format.  If accesses via the
@@ -1191,13 +1352,13 @@ static int proc_do_uuid(ctl_table *table, int write, struct file *filp,
 	ctl_table fake_table;
 	unsigned char buf[64], tmp_uuid[16], *uuid;
 
-	uuid = table->data;
-	if (!uuid) {
-		uuid = tmp_uuid;
-		uuid[8] = 0;
+	/* random/time UUIDs need to be read completely at once */
+	if ((int)table->extra1 != RANDOM_BOOT_ID && *ppos > 0) {
+		*lenp = 0;
+		return 0;
 	}
-	if (uuid[8] == 0)
-		generate_random_uuid(uuid);
+
+	uuid = get_uuid(table->extra1, tmp_uuid);
 
 	sprintf(buf, "%02x%02x%02x%02x-%02x%02x-%02x%02x-%02x%02x-"
 		"%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x%02x",
@@ -1221,13 +1382,7 @@ static int uuid_strategy(ctl_table *table, int __user *name, int nlen,
 	if (!oldval || !oldlenp)
 		return 1;
 
-	uuid = table->data;
-	if (!uuid) {
-		uuid = tmp_uuid;
-		uuid[8] = 0;
-	}
-	if (uuid[8] == 0)
-		generate_random_uuid(uuid);
+	uuid = get_uuid(table->extra1, tmp_uuid);
 
 	if (get_user(len, oldlenp))
 		return -EFAULT;
@@ -1284,11 +1439,11 @@ ctl_table random_table[] = {
 	{
 		.ctl_name	= RANDOM_BOOT_ID,
 		.procname	= "boot_id",
-		.data		= &sysctl_bootid,
 		.maxlen		= 16,
 		.mode		= 0444,
 		.proc_handler	= &proc_do_uuid,
 		.strategy	= &uuid_strategy,
+		.extra1		= (void *) RANDOM_BOOT_ID,
 	},
 	{
 		.ctl_name	= RANDOM_UUID,
@@ -1297,6 +1452,20 @@ ctl_table random_table[] = {
 		.mode		= 0444,
 		.proc_handler	= &proc_do_uuid,
 		.strategy	= &uuid_strategy,
+		.extra1		= (void *) RANDOM_UUID,
+	},
+	{
+		.procname	= "uuid_time",
+		.mode		= 0444,
+		.proc_handler	= &proc_do_uuid,
+		.extra1		= (void *) RANDOM_UUID_TIME,
+	},
+	{
+		.procname	= "uuid_time_clockseq",
+		.data		= &clock_seq,
+		.maxlen		= sizeof(unsigned int),
+		.mode		= 0644,
+		.proc_handler	= &proc_dointvec_clockseq,
 	},
 	{ .ctl_name = 0 }
 };
diff --git a/include/linux/sysctl.h b/include/linux/sysctl.h
index e99171f..dd09d97 100644
--- a/include/linux/sysctl.h
+++ b/include/linux/sysctl.h
@@ -248,8 +248,9 @@ enum
 	RANDOM_ENTROPY_COUNT=2,
 	RANDOM_READ_THRESH=3,
 	RANDOM_WRITE_THRESH=4,
-	RANDOM_BOOT_ID=5,
-	RANDOM_UUID=6
+	RANDOM_BOOT_ID=5,	/* rfc4122 version 4, boot UUID */
+	RANDOM_UUID=6,		/* rfc4122 version 4, random-based */
+	RANDOM_UUID_TIME=7	/* rfc4122 version 1, time-based */
 };
 
 /* /proc/sys/kernel/pty */
-
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