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64 processors?

64 processors?

Posted Sep 24, 2007 15:47 UTC (Mon) by giraffedata (subscriber, #1954)
In reply to: 64 processors? by alankila
Parent article: What every programmer should know about memory, Part 1

thought that it might be because each hyperthread in turn pushes the cached data of the other hyperthread off the cpu, resulting in expensive memory re-fetches which in this case actually negate the advantage of utilizing the idle CPU computation units.

It's roughly that effect, but this actual scenario doesn't happen, because a hyperthread timeslice lasts only until the next cache miss and there is more than one line of cache. The point of hyperthreading is to let Thread B run while Thread A is waiting to get stuff into cache.

However, you do have the simple problem of having only half the locality in the memory cache. If two threads are in greatly different contexts, each will get half the cache and half a cache might make it take significantly longer to get something done than a whole cache.

But I think the usual reason for hyperthreading slowdown is just the overhead of switching threads. If that exceeds the time you would sit idle waiting for memory access in the single thread case, the double thread has less throughput than the single thread.

What should have been said along with the 50% number above is that it is just for some highly average workload. The effect of hyperthreading has a great deal to do with how much memory access the programs do. A system that spends most of its time moving stuff around in memory will not benefit from hyperthreading. But a system that spends half its time accessing memory and the other half computing in registers and near caches might get close to double the throughput with 2 hyperthreads.

I usually turn off hyperthreading just to restore consistency. Otherwise, my speed varies almost randomly.


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64 processors?

Posted Sep 25, 2007 10:05 UTC (Tue) by alankila (guest, #47141) [Link]

Thanks for a highly informative clarification.

Hyperthreading performance

Posted Oct 4, 2007 20:10 UTC (Thu) by anton (subscriber, #25547) [Link]

But I think the usual reason for hyperthreading slowdown is just the overhead of switching threads.
In SMT (and that includes hyperthreading), there is no thread switching overhead. The execution core just executes instructions from different contexts at the same time (but in different resources).

I don't know why the Pentium 4 variant of SMT performs as badly as it does; cache thrashing may contribute, but I don't think that this is the main reason. The main reasons are probably some obscure microarchitectural details, maybe the replay system, maybe something else.


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