Well if you're using message passing, then once you've sent the message, you no longer have access to the data. This is hinting at what the real problem is: shared memory.
Erlang, with its message passing, can't ever have this sort of problem. Now of course, to make the implementation run fast, it uses shared memory under the bonnet, but this is never exposed to the programmer, so it's safe (err, well...). Other programming paradigms would also be able to protect programmers from this sort of issue - STM and other transactional memory systems may have ideas to contribute in this area too.
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