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Documentation/keys-request-key.txt (2.6.19)

			      ===================
			      KEY REQUEST SERVICE
			      ===================

The key request service is part of the key retention service (refer to
Documentation/keys.txt).  This document explains more fully how the requesting
algorithm works.

The process starts by either the kernel requesting a service by calling
request_key*():

	struct key *request_key(const struct key_type *type,
				const char *description,
				const char *callout_string);

or:

	struct key *request_key_with_auxdata(const struct key_type *type,
					     const char *description,
					     const char *callout_string,
					     void *aux);

Or by userspace invoking the request_key system call:

	key_serial_t request_key(const char *type,
				 const char *description,
				 const char *callout_info,
				 key_serial_t dest_keyring);

The main difference between the access points is that the in-kernel interface
does not need to link the key to a keyring to prevent it from being immediately
destroyed.  The kernel interface returns a pointer directly to the key, and
it's up to the caller to destroy the key.

The request_key_with_auxdata() call is like the in-kernel request_key() call,
except that it permits auxiliary data to be passed to the upcaller (the default
is NULL).  This is only useful for those key types that define their own upcall
mechanism rather than using /sbin/request-key.

The userspace interface links the key to a keyring associated with the process
to prevent the key from going away, and returns the serial number of the key to
the caller.


The following example assumes that the key types involved don't define their
own upcall mechanisms.  If they do, then those should be substituted for the
forking and execution of /sbin/request-key.


===========
THE PROCESS
===========

A request proceeds in the following manner:

 (1) Process A calls request_key() [the userspace syscall calls the kernel
     interface].

 (2) request_key() searches the process's subscribed keyrings to see if there's
     a suitable key there.  If there is, it returns the key.  If there isn't,
     and callout_info is not set, an error is returned.  Otherwise the process
     proceeds to the next step.

 (3) request_key() sees that A doesn't have the desired key yet, so it creates
     two things:

     (a) An uninstantiated key U of requested type and description.

     (b) An authorisation key V that refers to key U and notes that process A
     	 is the context in which key U should be instantiated and secured, and
     	 from which associated key requests may be satisfied.

 (4) request_key() then forks and executes /sbin/request-key with a new session
     keyring that contains a link to auth key V.

 (5) /sbin/request-key assumes the authority associated with key U.

 (6) /sbin/request-key execs an appropriate program to perform the actual
     instantiation.

 (7) The program may want to access another key from A's context (say a
     Kerberos TGT key).  It just requests the appropriate key, and the keyring
     search notes that the session keyring has auth key V in its bottom level.

     This will permit it to then search the keyrings of process A with the
     UID, GID, groups and security info of process A as if it was process A,
     and come up with key W.

 (8) The program then does what it must to get the data with which to
     instantiate key U, using key W as a reference (perhaps it contacts a
     Kerberos server using the TGT) and then instantiates key U.

 (9) Upon instantiating key U, auth key V is automatically revoked so that it
     may not be used again.

(10) The program then exits 0 and request_key() deletes key V and returns key
     U to the caller.

This also extends further.  If key W (step 7 above) didn't exist, key W would
be created uninstantiated, another auth key (X) would be created (as per step
3) and another copy of /sbin/request-key spawned (as per step 4); but the
context specified by auth key X will still be process A, as it was in auth key
V.

This is because process A's keyrings can't simply be attached to
/sbin/request-key at the appropriate places because (a) execve will discard two
of them, and (b) it requires the same UID/GID/Groups all the way through.


======================
NEGATIVE INSTANTIATION
======================

Rather than instantiating a key, it is possible for the possessor of an
authorisation key to negatively instantiate a key that's under construction.
This is a short duration placeholder that causes any attempt at re-requesting
the key whilst it exists to fail with error ENOKEY.

This is provided to prevent excessive repeated spawning of /sbin/request-key
processes for a key that will never be obtainable.

Should the /sbin/request-key process exit anything other than 0 or die on a
signal, the key under construction will be automatically negatively
instantiated for a short amount of time.


====================
THE SEARCH ALGORITHM
====================

A search of any particular keyring proceeds in the following fashion:

 (1) When the key management code searches for a key (keyring_search_aux) it
     firstly calls key_permission(SEARCH) on the keyring it's starting with,
     if this denies permission, it doesn't search further.

 (2) It considers all the non-keyring keys within that keyring and, if any key
     matches the criteria specified, calls key_permission(SEARCH) on it to see
     if the key is allowed to be found.  If it is, that key is returned; if
     not, the search continues, and the error code is retained if of higher
     priority than the one currently set.

 (3) It then considers all the keyring-type keys in the keyring it's currently
     searching.  It calls key_permission(SEARCH) on each keyring, and if this
     grants permission, it recurses, executing steps (2) and (3) on that
     keyring.

The process stops immediately a valid key is found with permission granted to
use it.  Any error from a previous match attempt is discarded and the key is
returned.

When search_process_keyrings() is invoked, it performs the following searches
until one succeeds:

 (1) If extant, the process's thread keyring is searched.

 (2) If extant, the process's process keyring is searched.

 (3) The process's session keyring is searched.

 (4) If the process has assumed the authority associated with a request_key()
     authorisation key then:

     (a) If extant, the calling process's thread keyring is searched.

     (b) If extant, the calling process's process keyring is searched.

     (c) The calling process's session keyring is searched.

The moment one succeeds, all pending errors are discarded and the found key is
returned.

Only if all these fail does the whole thing fail with the highest priority
error.  Note that several errors may have come from LSM.

The error priority is:

	EKEYREVOKED > EKEYEXPIRED > ENOKEY

EACCES/EPERM are only returned on a direct search of a specific keyring where
the basal keyring does not grant Search permission.

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