shared subtrees allows you to create identical mount trees at different locations. It does more than that, but in general it makes sure that the
subtrees remain identical even after a series of mount and unmounts, in any of the subtrees.
Chroot is a entirely different thing. It helps set a process up in a jail
Once in a jail the process wont be able to access anything outside the directory tree. Neither do any of its children.
But the combination of shared subtree and chroot togather have lot of applications. One example is mentioned in the article, where we can have a identical subtree for each user(thanks to shared subtree semantics). And each user can get jailed in its corresponding subtree (thanks to chroot).
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