it depends on the application.
I recently did a openssl speed test on my Athlon64 box in both 32 bit (slackware) and 64 bit (gentoo) modes. with the same 64 bit kernel on the same hardware the 64 bit version was reporting encryption speeds 2-3x the 32 bit speed
at work I have some dual Opteron boxes running proxies (receive a connection, fork, child processes the connection to another server, child exits when the connection closes. yes I know there are faster ways to code this) with a 32 bit userspace and a 32 bit kernel this box maxes out at ~3200 connections/sec with the CPU's pegged. with a 64 bit kernel and the same 32 bit userspace it goes up to 4000 connections/sec with the CPU's 25% idle (at this point the limiting factor is the host the proxies connect to)
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