Back in 2010, we looked at Luminance HDR, a
standalone application for creating and editing high dynamic range
(HDR) images on Linux systems. At that time, Luminance was a
technically capable tool with a byzantine user interface that often
got in the user's way. In the intervening two years, the program has
made strides, although it has yet to break through the easy-to-grok
barrier. But it still remains one of the best applications in a small
set of open source options.
In 2010, Luminance was at version 2.0.1. Today, the latest release
is 2.3.0, which was released in July 2012. The intervening releases
introduced cross-platform support (including Mac OS X, which is a
popular request among photographers), 64-bit processor support, and
significant speed improvements through harnessing multiple CPU cores.
The core of the application has been reworked as well, and it now uses
LibRaw for raw photo conversion, Lcms2 for color management, and has
separated the user interface out — which allows for a new
command line front-end.
The feature set is essentially the same as in earlier versions,
however. Users can import a stack of images taken at different
exposure levels and blend them into one; the combined image covers a
far wider range of light-to-dark than a camera sensor can grab in a
single shot. The "exposure-blended" output can be exported either
as an HDR image (in OpenEXR or TIFF format), or tone-mapped into
a more pedestrian low dynamic range (LDR) format. There is one new
tone-mapping algorithm in the latest builds, a size-independent
version of the Fattal method, and
there is an alignment tool which is supposed to support aligning raw
images. The other big news on the feature front is support for
batch processing, for those who create a significant number of HDR
Luminance put to the test
The most visible changes in Luminance 2.3.0 are in the user
interface, however. Most notably, the application confines itself to
a single window — the old interface popped-up multiple windows
and windows-embedded-within-windows, which quickly leads to clutter.
There is a "wizard" to guide the user through the process of importing
and aligning images. Once the image stack is aligned, the user can
click through previews of the output using all of the application's
available algorithms, and adjust the settings of each to gauge how
they affect the output. This is a big improvement over the old
interface, which required generating each output option separately,
then eyeballing them side-by-side in preview windows. Toggling
back-and-forth between the options brings out the often subtle
differences between the various effects.
On the other hand, the application has done little to de-math-nerd-ify
the settings and preferences. In 2010, I speculated that there may be
a limit to how much simplification can be done — the algorithms
are complex equations with a host of esoteric variables, after all.
But Luminance still fails to offer the user any real clues, presenting
instead a list of preset profiles with the utterly opaque names "Profile 1,
Profile 2, Profile 3, Profile 4," (and so on) on the last screen of
the project wizard. I could not even find an option to rename the
profiles. Being able to tweak each algorithm's settings is important,
and seeing the changes applied instantly is a boon, but the generic
names create a usability barrier.
For example, one of the algorithms always produces desaturated output,
and another produces a significant "black outline" effect. Renaming
the profiles "Desaturated" and "Outlined" might not be technically
correct, but it might help users learn to work with the available
options. Sure, user-assigned profile names will be non-standard, but
so are the generic "Profile N" monikers. Does anyone know which of
the numbered profiles represents the algorithms used in other
tone-mapping programs, like Enfuse?
2.3.0 is easier to navigate than the older releases, but it still
has is its share of bugs. In particular, the alignment tool failed
completely in all of my tests. The interface allows manual,
fine-grained adjustment of the imported images, but the adjustment is
immediately lost on the next step. Initially, I thought I had
forgotten to click "Apply" or some other such button, but that was not
the case. Even if one crops the images after the alignment is
perfected, the changes are lost immediately. There are other minor
irritations, such as the file-open dialog not remembering the last
directory, and Exif rotation not being picked up in the project
wizard, but a non-functional alignment tool means Luminance is
effectively useless without near-pixel-perfect aligned images.
There are two possibilities for getting there. The "correct"
thing to do is probably to take all of one's photos from a sturdy
tripod with a cable release, thus eliminating awkward misalignments
from the outset. But even then, wind and camera shake will frequently
cause small misalignments, which necessitates the other option:
aligning the images first using a separate application. Fortunately,
there is a good option available.
The panorama-generation toolkit Hugin has collected an
assortment of valuable accessories over the years, including
lens-calibration functions, cloud-detection routines, and more. One
of the handiest is the ability to automatically align multiple
photographs of the same scene. This is a critical step for stitching
multiple images into a panorama, but it can also be used to align a
stack of images. Hugin will also correct geometric distortion, which
is not mandatory for HDR work, but certainly does not hurt.
In fact, Luminance 2.3.0 can call out to Hugin's automatic image
alignment tool. In my own tests, however, working directly in Hugin
is far simpler. First, in the event that the alignment routine fails
to find where the images line up, you can manually fix problems in
Hugin itself. A failure in Luminance leaves you with only the
Luminance manual-alignment tool (which, in my tests, never worked).
Second, Hugin's ability to fix lens distortion is always applied
before the alignment step, which greatly increases the odds
of success with wide-angle shots (where there is more distortion).
Luminance's call to Hugin's alignment routine does not perform
But Hugin can also perform the exposure-blending step itself, too. It
uses the Enfuse utility, and it produces excellent results. The only
caveat is that Hugin offers no control over the tone-mapping used to
create LDR output. Whatever defaults Enfuse uses are applied to the
output when generating an LDR file. It attempts to create
sane-looking results: no weird color saturation, no "fringing" or
other artifacts one might find in the HDR sections of a photo-sharing
The real question is whether there is any reason to head back to
Luminance if the output from Hugin is good enough. One certainly
can: Hugin can export OpenEXR or HDR TIFF output too; these
files can then be opened in Luminance and tone-mapped with any of the
included algorithms. Whether that is worth it is a purely artistic
decision. For the most part, the output that Hugin gets from Enfuse
is straightforward: balanced color, the full range of contrast. If
the point of blending multiple images is simply to capture a scene
that does not fit into a normal exposure in the camera's viewfinder,
Enfuse will likely suffice. Only if the special-effects look is
desirable does Luminance offer much extra functionality.
Comparing the two user interfaces is a bit of a toss-up. Both fall
well short of making the task at hand simple to understand.
Technically, the best results from Hugin are probably found by making
as few adjustments to the tools and options as possible — but
that fact is far from discoverable. The Optimizer tab,
for instance, offers tantalizing options like "Optimize high dynamic
range," but they rarely do what the user expects and are difficult to
revert. Luminance may throw a screenful of esoteric research-paper
terms at the user, but at least it is easy to click between the
Nevertheless, there are still other options to weigh. The Digikam photo-management suite can
also blend multiple pictures into an HDR image. It, too, uses Enfuse
for this functionality, so its results will be similar, but it is
simpler to use. Hugin's UI is an array of potentially-confusing tabs
— most of which hold tools and buttons that have no bearing on
blending a stack of images together into an HDR format. Avoiding them
entirely may be the best way to get started in HDR images on
On the other hand, Digikam is extremely anxious to take over one's
photo collection and manage it, whether one wants it to or not.
Running it for the first time launches an import wizard that wants to
index the user's entire home folder; the only way to prevent this is
to point it at an empty directory instead.
Another approach might be to use Enfuse directly. Enfuse was
designed to be executed from another application (namely Hugin, which
the Enfuse manual
recommends in its workflow section), but it can be called from the
command line as well. The caveats are that Enfuse needs pre-aligned
images, and it expects certain things from the input image formats.
For instance, it expects input images to have an alpha channel —
which they do when they are generated by Hugin — and throws
warnings when no alpha channel is found.
The final option to consider is exporting an OpenEXR or HDR TIFF file
and using one of the various open source raw converters to make
adjustments to it. Darktable, RawTherapee, and Rawstudio each support
OpenEXR, and they offer the usual slate of adjustment tools. In
short, there is not any reason that an HDR photo needs to be filtered
through one of Luminance's tone-mapping algorithms. Those techniques
can produce intriguing results, but it would be wrong to regard them
as the only "HDR" option.
In that sense, perhaps Luminance deserves a pass for keeping its
algorithm-adjustment options complex. Ultimately, the majority of
users just want a photo that looks good to the eye. The
surreal-looking tone-mapping that first captured the public's
attention with the term HDR has its place, but it does not have to be
the final word, and it probably will not be. The expanding support
for OpenEXR and other natively-HDR formats within the usual
photo-editing applications probably means we will see other uses for
HDR gaining in popularity.
For that matter, the digital camera market is beginning to see
hardware that natively blends together stacks of exposures; HDR is one
of the main selling points of replacement camera firmware projects
like CHDK and Magic Lantern. Add to that
mix the high-bit-depth support coming in GIMP 2.10, and two years from
now, the HDR editing scene on Linux — and other platforms
— could look drastically different.
Comments (9 posted)
Your editor recently related
to the generosity of the folks at
Google, he had come into possession of a second Nexus 7 tablet. There
are many advantages to that state of affairs, not the least of which being
that one can
install questionable software on one tablet without breaking the other;
it's possible to have your tablet and hack it too. Never one to turn down
such an opportunity, your editor decided to give the recently announced
Ubuntu Nexus 7 port
Why play with Ubuntu on such a device? Even the most ardent Android
supporters have sometimes been heard to complain that it's not really very
Linux-like above the kernel level. There has been a constant level of
interest in more "pure" alternatives like webOS, MeeGo, Nemo, etc., but, so
far, none of those alternatives have found any great success in the market.
So the availability of Ubuntu 12.10 for a tablet device caught your
editor's eye. Might this be a reasonable path to get "real" Linux in a
Like all "Nexus" devices, the Nexus 7 is open from the outset; there is
no need to root it via some sort of exploitable vulnerability first. It's a
simple matter of plugging the device into the computer and using "fastboot"
to unlock it. The unlock operation wipes all the data on the tablet, so,
obviously, any needed backups should be made first. The next step is to
use fastboot again to flash the "ClockworkMod" recovery image. ClockworkMod
allows all kinds of low-level manipulation of the device including backups,
operating system installations, and more; it really should be a standard
feature of all Nexus devices.
the Ubuntu port is a straightforward task — assuming one has an Ubuntu
desktop system handy. It is just a matter of installing and running the
ubuntu-nexus7-installer package. Some rough edges show through
quickly enough; the installer cannot figure out the storage capacity of the
device and must ask the user to supply that information. More frightening,
perhaps, are the scary warnings about not having any other devices attached
to the system during the installation; there is, it seems, no way to tell
the installer which device to overwrite.
There is another discouraging note during the installation process: the
release as a whole is made available under a noncommercial-use license.
The reason given in the license notice is proprietary drivers and
codecs from Broadcom and NVIDIA. Such restrictions have the potential to
raise all kinds of licensing issues. The problem is not created by Ubuntu,
though: they are simply using a rebuilt Android kernel and the drivers that came
with it. Be that as it may; your editor came to the conclusion that
writing a review constituted fair use rather than commercial use.
The use of the Android kernel raises some other interesting questions,
since Ubuntu's user space is designed for mainline kernels. Some quick
looking around suggests that Ubuntu is not using the Android-specific
interfaces; wakelocks have been configured out, for example. Battery life
under Ubuntu is claimed to be comparable to what is obtained with Android,
but it's being done with Linux-style power management instead of
opportunistic suspend. The Nexus 7 thus provides an ideal platform
for comparison of the two approaches to power management; this is an area
that bears watching.
Once the installation is complete, the tablet reboots and presents the
classic Ubuntu screen with the Unity icon bar on the left; there is no
login screen. It looks
like an interface that was designed for tablets, until one tries to use the
tiny icons in the upper right corner. Then, at least for the fat-fingered
among us, life starts to get harder. And it doesn't stop there. The
simple truth of the matter is that Ubuntu on the Nexus 7 is a painful
system to use; it is really only of interest to developers and other
masochists at this time.
In fairness, nobody ever claimed otherwise; it is described as an
experimental release for those who want to help find and fix problems. So,
sure enough, problems do exist. Many of them derive from the
fact that the traditional Linux desktop (and Unity remains close enough to
"traditional" for the purposes of this discussion) is just not designed
around touch-oriented interfaces. Others are simply glitches in the tablet
So, for example, one cannot scroll windows with the standard drag gesture;
instead, one ends up trying to hit scrollbars in just the right spot.
Anything involving a middle or right mouse button requires a complicated
dance with the "Onboard" on-screen keyboard. Autocompletion popups swallow
keystrokes, so trying to type a URL into Firefox is an exercise in extended
pain. The tablet often freezes or goes into a weird unresponsive mode,
requiring a reboot — there is a reason that the first entry in the Ubuntu Nexus 7 FAQ
is "How do you reset the device when it locks up?". The screen does not
auto-rotate (but one can rotate it
manually with the xrotate command). Neither Bluetooth nor the
camera work. The device often runs out of memory; the known issues page
describes the process for configuring zram (an in-memory compression system
formerly known as Compcache), which helps a
lot. And so on.
On the other hand, there's something refreshing about being able to run
multiple windows on a tablet display; as these devices grow in both size
and resolution, there really is no justification for forcing every
application to run in full-screen mode. It is nice to have a true Linux
user space with a complete package repository behind it.
The Unity "dash" is meant to be the way users find applications on the
tablet. It remains rather painful to use in the touch environment, though;
it is slow and the scrolling is difficult to use. Searching for
applications in the main screen quickly turns up unwanted things — the
opportunity to buy stuff from Amazon, for example. The interaction between
the dash and the onscreen keyboard is problematic; it is often not possible
to get both onto the screen at once, and, when that does work out, the
keyboard tends to cover the part of the window one is trying to use.
Those difficulties notwithstanding, the onscreen keyboard is, it must be said,
one of the best your editor
has encountered — at least, for the task of typing at terminal emulators
and related applications.
Ubuntu's keyboard lacks the word completion and correction
features found on the Android keyboard, but it offers other amenities: easy
access to special characters, "control" and "alt" keys, arrow keys,
function keys, macros, configurable layouts, themes, and
more. Your editor has not attempted to use it with Emacs, but the idea is
only mildly irrational.
Some concluding thoughts
In the end, while Ubuntu on tablets is essentially unusable now, that
could change in the future. Whether it will change in time to be relevant
is not clear, though. Beyond the fundamental issues of making the
distribution work on this hardware (and, in particular, within the tablet's
memory constraints), there needs to be a set of applications that work well
with touchscreens. So it is a little discouraging that Ubuntu has no plans
to support Android applications; doing so would help to jump-start the
distribution on mobile devices. There is also, according to Mark
Shuttleworth (as quoted in this
OMG! Ubuntu! article), no plan to improve the interface for the
upcoming 13.04 release. So a version of Ubuntu that is actually usable on
tablets is, at a bare minimum, a full year away; it may, in fact, take
rather longer than that.
The situation isn't helped by Canonical's apparent
determination to go it alone in this quest. Rather than pick up a system
which has a lot of the basics working now
(Nemo or Plasma Active, say), Canonical is trying
to build up its own "Unity" shell, and it seems to lack a story altogether
when it comes to the development of touch-friendly applications. So it's
going to take a while, and
that is unfortunate: a year or three in the future may well be too late.
There are other tablet-oriented systems out there, mostly of the non-free
variety, that are
ready and grabbing market share now. By the time Ubuntu gets to be a
serious contender, there may be no space for another offering, no matter
how nice. Linux on the tablet may repeat the history of Linux on the
So Ubuntu on the tablet has the look of a cool toy that most of us may
never play with. But, then, your editor is highly gifted when it comes to
being wrong on the Internet. This distribution is certainly a cool hack,
fun to play with, and it might just attract contributors and develop
quickly into something people want to use. For now, though, your editor
will be putting Android back onto this particular device.
Comments (59 posted)
Here is LWN's fifteenth annual timeline of significant events in the
Linux and free software world.
2012 has largely been business as usual. Software and distributions
continue to be released at an astonishing rate; some distributions have
risen in popularity as others fall. Linux continues to appear in more and
more places, from embedded to high-performance computing. And, though Linux
still has not conquered the desktop, it (in the form of Android) seems to
have conquered the phone market and to be well established on tablets. The
usual threats to free software continue to lurk: patents and technological
measures such as UEFI secure boot. Nevertheless, it has been another good
year for Linux, and the prospects for the coming year(s) seem bright.
We will be breaking the timeline up into quarters, and this is our
report on January-March 2012. Over the next month, we will be putting out
timelines of the other three quarters of the year.
This is version 0.8 of the 2012 timeline. There are almost certainly
some errors or omissions; if you find any, please send them to firstname.lastname@example.org.
LWN subscribers have paid for the development of this timeline, along
with previous timelines and the weekly editions. If you like what you see
here, or elsewhere on the site, please consider subscribing to LWN.
If you'd like to look further back in time, our timeline index page has links
to the previous timelines and some other retrospective articles
going all the way back to 1998.
Weighing all that up, I don't think it is useful to set
our goal on "getting Android to use a mainline kernel" - that isn't going
to happen. Rather we should focus primarily on "making it *possible* to run
android user-space on mainline".
-- Neil Brown
Linux 3.2 is released (announcement, KernelNewbies summary, LWN merge
window summaries: part 1 and part 2).
The Apache Software Foundation releases Hadoop 1.0 (announcement,
Microsoft confirms earlier fears about UEFI secure boot by requiring
vendors to lock down ARM devices (LWN blurb).
Scribus 1.4 is released (announcement, LWN
So, I've said it many times before, and I'll say it again:
Yes, you are special and unique, just like everyone else.
The next person who says the "embedded is different" phrase again, owes me
a beer of my choice.
-- Greg Kroah-Hartman
After nearly two years' work, the Mozilla Project releases the
Mozilla Public License 2.0 (announcement,
The Tizen project releases a set of source repositories and an alpha
SDK (LWN article).
systemd v38 is released; this is the first release containing "the
NSA releases security-enhanced Android (LWN blurb).
linux.conf.au is held in Ballarat, Australia, January 16-21 (LWN
coverage: A Samba 4 update; Addressing the failure of open source; The past, present, and future of Ubuntu on
ARM; Jacob Appelbaum on surveillance and
censorship; An LCA 2012 summary; videos).
Southern California Linux Expo (SCALE) 10x is held in Los
Angeles, January 20-22 (LWN coverage: Robots rampage; The trickiness of the education market; The road ahead for automotive Linux and open
One always got the feeling that somebody was steering
GNOME, but it wasn't clear who. When it started, I thought it was Miguel
and Nat, then Novell, then Redhat. Now it has that floaty, determined
meandering that the best mass open source projects have. From a distance,
everyone seems to be constantly bickering and regretting the next steps;
but the steps get made, and slowly everyone adapts to them. GNOME feels
like a nation now.
FreeBSD 9.0 is released (announcement,
An X.Org Server flaw that allows screen-lock programs to be
bypassed is disclosed; the bug is quickly fixed (LWN coverage).
GDB 7.4 is released (release announcement).
The KDE project releases KDE Plasma Workspaces, KDE Applications,
and KDE Platform 4.8 (LWN blurb,
HP announces a roadmap to make webOS open source by September
(LWN blurb, announcement).
Cinnamon 1.2 is released; this is the first stable release
of Linux Mint's fork of the GNOME Shell (LWN article).
I really urge people to think about openness and freedom,
two amazingly important concepts, beyond the boundaries of simple software
licensing. Licensing is important, and we take it pretty damn seriously
.. but we ought to look at bigger picture and really think about how to
make our digital tools open and free in all sorts of ways.
Greg Kroah-Hartman moves to the Linux Foundation (LWN blurb).
ownCloud 3 is released; LWN looked
at this personal cloud system in January.
Linaro Connect Q1.12 is held in Redwood City, California,
February 6-10 (LWN coverage of the
FOSDEM '12 is held in Brussels, Belgium, February 4-5 (LWN
coverage: Multiarch on Debian and Ubuntu; The Wayland display server).
The Document Foundation announces that it will be based in
Canonical ceases sponsoring one of their employees to work full-time
on the Kubuntu project (announcement).
The book Open Advice is published under a CC-BY-SA
license; the book consists of a set of essays with advice on
contributing to FOSS projects
SUSE, the oldest of the current commercial Linux distributions,
turns 20 this year (IT
World article, TechWeek
Robyn Bergeron becomes the new leader of the Fedora Project,
succeeding Jared Smith (LWN interview with
LibreOffice 3.5 makes its third stable release, with the project
starting to settle into a 6-month release cycle (announcement; LWN article).
Wayland protocol and Weston compositor 0.85.0 are released (announcement, LWN article; The
The Android Builders Summit is held in Redwood Shores,
California, February 13-14 (LWN coverage: Android and the kernel mainline).
Fellow Anti-mergers, I understand the pain and anguish
that systemd has caused you personally, and your families. Your hopes and
dreams crushed, by someone with all the charm of a cheese grater across the
knuckles. Your remaining life tainted by this putrescent subhuman who
forced himself upon your internet.
Despite the privation we have all endured, please find strength to stop
this nightmarish ravaging of our once-pure filesystems. For if he's not
stopped now, what hope for /usr/sbin vs /usr/bin?
-- Rusty Russell
Canonical announces Ubuntu for Android (LWN article).
VLC 2.0 is released (LWN blurb).
Adobe ends separate distribution of its proprietary Linux Flash
plugin used by the Firefox browser (LWN blurb and later article on Flash support on Linux).
Mozilla announces a deal to
start shipping HTML5-driven smartphones by the end of 2012 (announcement,
The proposed /usr unification causes gnashing of teeth in some
quarters (LWN article).
MINIX 3.2.0 is released (LWN article).
Buying DRMed books is voting with your wallet for a
system that criminalizes those that insist on living in freedom and will
screw us all in the long run when DRM is the only choice we are offered and
removing the DRM is difficult, unsafe, and illegal.
-- Benjamin Mako Hill
PHP 5.4.0 is released (LWN blurb;
The GitHub repository site is compromised (LWN blurb).
Wine 1.4 is released
Vagrant 1.0 is released (LWN article).
X.Org Server 1.12 is released (LWN article on the XInput multitouch extension in
The Open Invention Network announces an expansion of the range of
software that is covered by the group's patent license agreement. (LWN
Google releases the LinSched scheduler-testing framework (release announcement, LWN article).
Programming is not just an act of telling a computer what
to do: it is also an act of telling other programmers what you wished the
computer to do. Both are important, and the latter deserves care.
-- Andrew Morton
bzr 2.5.0 is released (announcement).
Gnuplot 4.6 is released (announcement).
Cinnamon 1.4 is released (LWN blurb).
Crossroads I/O 1.0.0 is released (LWN article on this ZeroMQ fork).
The Mozilla project decides to support the H.264 video codec
(LWN blurb and article).
Patch verification occurs in an artificial bubble of
software run/known by kernel developers. It can take years before the code
is exposed to real life situations.
-- Christoph Lameter
Linux 3.3 is released (announcement; KernelNewbies summary; LWN
merge window summaries part 1 and part 2; LWN development statistics article).
GCC 4.7.0 is released; the project is now 25 years old (announcement).
LTTng 2.0 "stable" is released (LWN coverage: part 1 and part
Current trends are: for every 1000 patches sent there's
maybe one patch that has a tad too much information in its changelog - but
instead offers good entertainment in the changelog so it's still perfectly
fine. 990 patches have too little information. The remaining 9 are just
-- Ingo Molnar
The GNU C library steering committee dissolves itself, one of
several events that signal a change in the governance of the project
(LWN blurb and article).
Version 1 of the Go programming language is released (LWN blurb).
GNOME 3.4 is released; this is the second major update of
GNOME 3 (announcement).
Comments (none posted)
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