Nope. The way to write exception-safe code has been clear from the start (modulo a few foulups in the Standard). That's why there's no "finally" keyword in C++.
The main problem was that exceptions were added quite lately in the game, and they were not reliable and/or generally available until at least early 2000-s. So we're stuck with huge amount of legacy non-exception-safe code.
But that's a poor excuse for creating a new language without exception support.