The PostgreSQL Project finally switched from CVS to Git in September 2010,
and did its first release based on the new Git repository on October 5.
Making the switch happen took years and resulted in at least one
near-disaster. Other projects that are contemplating, or working on, a
transition in their version control system may find useful lessons in how
A History of CVS
Switching version control systems is a relatively straightforward process
for a young project, but not for an old one. From 1996 through
mid-September 2010, the PostgreSQL Project was developed using CVS. In
fact, the date the CVS server went live — July 8, 1996 — is
generally considered the "birthday" of the open-source project, which came
out of the ten-year-old university project.
Twenty-one major releases and 154 minor releases were committed, branched, and packaged on CVS. A large web and development infrastructure existed around CVS, as well as a multi-step, multi-role release procedure.
In 2004, as Subversion was beginning to become popular, PostgreSQL
contributors first started to argue
about switching away from CVS. However, Subversion was not seen as
sufficiently mature at the time, or as offering enough advantages over CVS.
This discussion, and occasional flamewars, continued to crop up on the main
"pgsql-hackers" mailing list. Those who wanted to migrate off of CVS split
into multiple camps based on the system they preferred, including Subversion, Arch, and Monotone. And, of course, a large group of developers saw no reason to change at all.
As with many projects which operate by rough consensus, where there is no consensus, there is no action. The community verdict was to wait for one version control system to become the clear leader. In retrospect, this turned out to have been a good decision.
First Git Mirror
In 2007, one of the git-cvsimport maintainers from New Zealand decided to set up a persistent and frequently updated Git mirror for the PostgreSQL CVS tree. This mirror was extremely popular and one Google Summer of Code student even did his project using the Git mirror instead of the CVS repository. An increasing number of PostgreSQL contributors started using Git mirrors.
In 2008 a few members of the PostgreSQL web team decided to set up an "official" git.postgresql.org, using FromCVS for conversion, and Gitweb with custom administration scripts for the web version. This was done without obtaining community consensus, and caused some controversy. But once the flames died out, many people started using the repository.
However, the mirror became a source of frustration for the developers who depended on it. Synchronization with CVS was often undependable, with changes made in CVS failing to show up in Git.
While one or two Subversion mirrors were created well before the Git mirror, and there was even a Bazaar mirror on Launchpad, none of these were at all popular. By mid-2008, it was clear that a majority of PostgreSQL developers favored an eventual switch to Git.
pgCon is the annual international PostgreSQL conference in Ottawa, Canada. By pgCon 2009, PostgreSQL was one of only a handful of major projects still using CVS. It was time to switch to something, and a long discussion ensued at the developer meeting. With a version of Git available for Windows, a major hurdle had been cleared, but several issues remained to be solved, most of them having to do with project infrastructure.
First, the project has an automated regression testing infrastructure
called the PostgreSQL Buildfarm. This network of donated servers and virtual machines does
daily or hourly CVS checkouts, builds PostgreSQL, and runs regression
tests. The Buildfarm would need to be updated to use Git, which was a
challenge because not all of the operating systems represented in the build
farm (such as UnixWare and AIX) had Git packages available.
The second challenge was the code review process. Using CVS, PostgreSQL contributors submitted their patches in context diff format to the pgsql-hackers mailing list and the CommitFest application. The committers did not want to change this process.
It was also unclear whether it would be possible to recreate past releases from Git.
Decision to Switch
2010, these issues had been resolved.
The Buildfarm code had been patched, and the web team planned to set up a
CVS mirror of Git for the build farm members who could not run Git. Developers had tested several back branches, and tweaked the conversion process until it was possible to produce a back-branch release which was identical to the one produced by CVS.
The Buildfarm developers, primarily Andrew Dunstan, worked on
transitioning build farm members to using the Git mirror in advance of the
switchover. However, the git.postgresql.org mirror proved too unreliable
for this purpose, and Andrew had to set up another mirror on Github using
some custom scripts. That took longer than the changes to the Buildfarm
client code. But it worked, and the build farm servers started to convert to Git.
Accordingly, those at the developer meeting set a date: on August 18th, 2010, PostgreSQL would switch over. The Git repository would become the canonical code base and the CVS repository would become the mirror. This date was based on the assumption that 9.0 would be released by then, and August 18th would be after the first Alpha release for 9.1.
Suitably, at pgCon Andrew did a talk on "Git for PostgreSQL developers".
Failure to Switch Over
By August 13th, things were looking somewhat different; 9.0 was not released yet. But everything else was scheduled, so the conversion went ahead. First, the developers froze the CVS tree. Next, Magnus Hagander employed the cvs2git tool to do a final conversion from CVS to Git. Then all of the PostgreSQL developers were asked to test the new repository. Things looked OK.
Then, the day before the Git repository was expected to be opened to new
patches, committer Robert Haas noticed a problem:
The first few revs look OK, but [then] you get to this:
This commit was manufactured by cvs2svn to create branch REL8_3_STABLE
Prior to that commit, this history is nonsense - it appears to be the
history of our 9.0 development prior to that date. I would say we're
going back to good old CVS.
It seems that, where we had ported patches from later versions to earlier versions, cvs2git had manufactured inappropriate merge commits. Nobody had noticed because it didn't affect the head of any branch, just the history.
We reverted to CVS, and postponed switchover until after 9.0 was released.
The Second Conversion
Over the next few weeks, web team member Magnus Hagander worked with
CVS2git developers Max Bowsher and Michael Haggerty to clean up issues with
the conversion. In addition to the false merge commits, there were quite a number of other artificial commits and weird history in the converted version, such as branches which didn't exist and reappearing deleted files. A good portion of this was due to the fact that not only were we running an old version of CVS, but repository steward Marc Fournier and others had also done "CVS surgery" a number of times to fix problems over the years.
A second conversion test broke the ability to recreate any release. We discovered the new Debian
server we were running it on did not default to ISO date format and had
changed all the date strings for the releases. Fixed. A fair amount of
"dirty history" in CVS simply could not be converted and needed to be
patched in CVS before conversion. That was patched by Tom Lane.
Magnus, Max, Robert, and Tom stuck with it and resolved all of the issues which were considered roadblocks. cvs2git's next release will contain several improvements which are a result of our conversion.
Several community members also added documentation to the PostgreSQL wiki on how we would use Git for development, including how to use git.postgresql.org, and how to commit.
On September 20, we released version 9.0 of PostgreSQL. Since Magnus was not heavily involved in the 9.0 release, he was able to spend his time preparing. So, on September 21st, we switched to Git.
Not Done Yet
However, the actual day of conversion was hardly the end. There was still a lot of minor cleanup to do. Contributors had to prune fictitious branches, move tags which appeared in the wrong place, and clean up many other issues.
Because the community wanted to preserve old releases exactly as they had been in CVS, we needed to preserve the file header tags in each file and remove them only from the "tip" of each branch. These are the comments which CVS automatically creates in each file which look like this:
* $PostgreSQL: pgsql/src/tools/fsync/test_fsync.c,v 1.27 2010/02/26 02:01:39 momjian Exp $
Git doesn't use these tags since they don't work with atomic multi-file commits, so they needed to be removed from current development without removing them from the history.
Administrators also had to fix people's usernames, since contributors had freely used idiosyncratic nicknames and incomplete user information for git.postgresql.org before it was the canonical repository. These were changed to their main e-mail addresses with their real names. And, most of all, hackers who had waited until the conversion to learn Git were asking for command help on the mailing lists.
After the conversion, the project had to resolve policies and contents for .gitignore files, which tell Git what kinds of files to ignore. These are used to prevent developers from accidentally sending in patches containing editor backup files or build artifacts.
One issue which still isn't resolved is the CVS mirror for the Git
repository. git-cvsserver turned out to have serious scalability limits,
which makes it
too limited to support the build farm servers. As a result, Andrew Dunstan
required all of the build farm machine owners to migrate
their nodes to Git immediately rather than gradually. However, there
are still a few machines which are very valuable for testing and cannot run
Git and, so far, there is no solution for those.
No Merge Commits
PostgreSQL had introduced a new workflow for reviewing patches in 2008,
called "CommitFests" — a bi-monthly process where committers and reviewers
clear out the pending patch queue. By 2010, the bugs had been worked out of the CommitFests and everyone thought they were working well. Among other things, the new workflow was helping train new contributors. So nobody wanted to change it. Also, many committers were okay with the migration only if they could still review patches the way they were used to.
The result was the adoption of a policy which will surprise veteran Git users. Per Magnus's blog:
... We still allow any developers (and committers) to use whatever parts of git they want as they develop, but for commits going into the main tree, we are making a number of restrictions ... We will not allow merge commits ... We will not use the author field in git to tag it with the patches original author ... we will require that author and committer are always set to the same thing, and we will then credit the author(s) (along with the reviewer(s)) in the commit message ...
Yes, that's correct. No merge commits. To submit a patch, extract it as a context diff and e-mail it. Committers are to apply the patch under their own names, without branch history. The project has decided, more-or-less, to use Git like it was CVS as far as commits to the main repository are concerned. Rather than adapt the PostgreSQL project's workflow to Git, Git would be adapted to the project's workflow.
It's possible, even likely, that eventually the PostgreSQL project will
move towards the "normal Git workflow" where branches and merges would be
used for feature work. But it definitely won't happen this year.
The First Release
The conversion wasn't really complete until the project did a release from it. That happened on Tuesday, October 5th with a combined security update. Unsurprisingly, there was a problem.
Security releases usually have fairly tight timing; from the moment someone
commits the security patches, the issues fixed are publicly visible. Due
to that, and limited familiarity with the Git commands, the source packager
missed the final commit on the latest branch (9.0.1). That caused the release to be delayed by a day.
Git can't be blamed for everything, though. The release was delayed for
another 2 hours because the Subversion repository which holds the
www.postgresql.org web code locked up. But the release did go out.
Benefits of Git
Now that the migration is mostly done, many people are discovering the benefits of working on an up-to-date, distributed, version control tool.
Robert Haas has documented how
to get commit summaries and sizes from Git. He wrote a perl
script (which Tom Lane improved) that allows you to produce a changelog
suitable for release notes from Git. Andrew Dunstan also found new ways to sync his local repository.
The pgAdmin project has also switched to Git and the pgWeb project will hopefully soon follow.
In the future, Git should both allow developers to work on longer-lived
forks more easily and to test them more fully; we've already seen this with synchronous replication and SE-Postgres. Hopefully the translation teams will also be able to take advantage of forks on git.postgresql.org to collaborate on translating the docs and messages. Most importantly, Git should help prevent bit-rot in features which take months or years to develop.
Best of all, most PostgreSQL developers were able to continue hacking away without being involved in the switchover at all.
Assuming that there are any projects out there who have not yet switched to their distributed version control system of choice, here's a few things to learn from our migration:
- Start with a Git mirror.
- Designate a specific "Git migration team". Make sure they have lots of free time.
- Your first attempt to migrate will probably fail, so you need to be prepared for more than one.
- Changing your infrastructure, workflow, and build tool dependencies is harder than the repository conversion.
- Make friends with the conversion tool authors.
- Write lots of docs about the new tools and workflow.
- The more history you have on your current system, the more work conversion is going to be.
- Things which are broken in your current history are not going to fix themselves when you migrate.
- When testing the conversion, make sure to look at more than HEAD and branch-tips.
The biggest lesson, though, is not to be in a hurry! It was over three years from PostgreSQL's first Git mirror to final conversion, and 16 months of actual preparation. If you take your time and are ready to retry things that don't work the first time, you should be able to have a successful migration to Git.
Comments (64 posted)
Web comic author and illustrator Howard Tayler
looked at success and failure in business, particularly from the
perspective of free content business models, in his keynote talk at the
Utah Open Source Conference (UTOSC). Tayler has successfully turned his comic, Schlock Mercenary, into
his day job for the past six years, even though the comic is freely available
daily on the web. Arriving at a successful business plan is mostly a
matter of learning from mistakes, he said, either your own or those of your
peers. We live in a time where it is much easier to find out about
mistakes, thanks to the internet.
Tayler previously worked at Novell for 11 years, doing everything from
tech support to product management. He started Schlock Mercenary in
2000, while he was there, and built a following for the comic. In 2004, he
left Novell to do the comic full-time. Though there have been ups and
downs, he has succeeded in supporting his family since that time, primarily
with book sales of the comic, along with advertising on the web site.
This is not the first time Tayler has spoken to UTOSC. In a presentation at
UTOSC 2008, Tayler focused more on his particular
business model, and at that time he saw it much differently than he does
today. He likened his earlier model of creating a business plan to
"making grizzly bear soup", which has a hard part, actually
killing the grizzly, and "everything else is just soup
recipes". For him, the hard part was to make the comic itself, and
the other, moneymaking parts kind of just fell out of that. But,
"business plans are not that cut and dried", he said.
We are all storytellers, Tayler said, of one kind or another. His stories
are 1000 years in the future, but he also tells himself the same kinds of
stories that those of us who aren't comic space opera authors tell. These
are the stories that often govern our behavior ("if I work hard I will be
able to retire at 65" or "if I always take off my shoes at the airport, I
am safe from terrorist attack" and so on). As we keep telling ourselves
these stories, some of them become business plans. Unfortunately, those
stories are not really reflecting reality.
Black Swan, author Nassim Nicholas Taleb attributes success
"much more to luck than we would be comfortable with", Tayler
said. That book "blows my mind" and he strongly recommended
it. One of the examples that Taleb gives is Casanova, who succeeded
and failed seven different times in his life, going from prosperity to
poverty. To many this is "proof" of the adage "never give up", but Taleb
points out that there are likely many more folks who tried just as hard but
never achieved that final success, so we don't know anything about them.
The failure stories would be valuable, so that we can learn from them. But
people are "disinclined to talk about the failures", so we
lose that information. But now, we have lots of ways to find about
failures. People love to sweep their failures under the rug, but
"there are now spiders under the rug recording those
failures", and we can access that information through search engines.
An example that Tayler gave was the logo redesign that Tropicana orange
juice did last year. The logo changed from an orange with a straw in it to
a glass of orange juice, and within three weeks Tropicana knew they had
made a mistake because they were losing millions of dollars. Brands that made
"terrible orange juice", like Donald Duck brand, were suddenly
outselling Tropicana. Marketing had decided that the brand needed a
refresh, but it was a bad decision that looked good at the time it was
made. Tropicana went back to the old logo, and in pre-internet days, that
controversy would have faded. But you can still find lots of information
about that failure on the web today.
On the other hand, people imitate each other's successes all the time. In
his talk two years ago, he encouraged people to follow the same path he had
as a business plan. But, he said, that kind of plan won't work for
everyone as "'web cartoonist' pays better than 'web
novelist'". For whatever reason, changing the web comic business
model to a product that is strictly words doesn't work.
He has been lucky in that he "hasn't had enough failures to learn
from", at least yet. When he left Novell, he set a failure
condition: if they had to tap credit cards to pay bills for two consecutive
months, it was time for him to go look for a job. Thousands of people
don't recognize that their business has crossed a failure boundary, and
they keep going hoping that the business is going to work out and pay them
back. It is very important to set some failure conditions when starting a
business so that failure can be recognized and flexibility can kick in.
Taleb and "dozens of authors" have suggested that business
planning needs to be both robust and flexible. It must be robust enough to
absorb a few mistakes, while being flexible enough to learn from those
failures. Large organizations tend to come to this realization late, he
said—if they realize it at all.
Evolution is the ultimate teacher of flexibility, robustness, and learning
from failure. Evolution does not move toward a goal, it moves away from
things that didn't work. It is, "improving things by making
accidental random changes", which results in things like sharks—but
also zedonks. Zedonks
are a cross between donkeys and zebras that are ornery, sterile, and
will "live to a ripe old age on a pony farm biting children".
They are one of evolution's mistakes, he said.
While we may not have the time to make changes to business plans the way
that evolution does it, we can use the information from various failed
plans to guide our choices. You can't try out all of the different
possible plans yourself, but new businesses are being started all the
time. The ability to see their plans—what works and what
doesn't—is an enormous advantage.
There is a flipside to the "law of large numbers", he said. If you roll a
six-sided die many times, the average is 3.5, but rolling it long enough
long strings of consecutive sixes. By looking at the failures of others,
"we can game the system", and make it more likely that our
plans will come up sixes. "Lightning wants to hit something",
he said, so "put up a lightning rod at the leading edge of a
Tayler then took questions from the audience, most of which centered on the
specifics of his particular business model. He brings in
roughly 30% of his revenue from web advertising and 50-60% from the sale of
several different books.
There are some revenue sources he hasn't tapped yet, like speaking
engagements, mostly because he likes talking for free. He cautioned
against having any single revenue stream that makes up more than 40% of
your income. At one point, he was in that position with Google AdSense and
was concerned that Google could just "randomly turn that off",
which could have been catastrophic.
Community is very important to his business. When he sells something, he
wants that customer to "feel like they are part of a club".
That requires good customer service, and making a connection with people at
conferences and shows. There are certain cities where he sells much more
than the population would indicate, like Austin and Detroit, because he has
been there multiple times interacting with his fans.
In response to a question about telling good ideas from bad, Tayler
pointed to a meeting that he attended in 1997 when he was working for
Novell. In that meeting, then-CEO Eric Schmidt said that the internet
needed a "directory", which was a great idea, he said, but one that Novell
deliver. So Schmidt went to a startup (Google) and helped make it happen.
It is important to get a lot of feedback on an idea; "the more eyes
on your idea, the better". Many in his field make the mistake of
believing that their customers are the same as they are, so they design
their products and such for themselves. Getting others to review product
plans and other business ideas will help avoid that trap.
There may be a big change coming for publishing with the advent of e-books,
he said. There is a belief that a "tipping point" exists once e-book sales
reach 25% of printed book sales. Unlike some others in the publishing
business, though, he is cautiously optimistic about his prospects if that
happens. If it doesn't happen, he will be fine because he sells paper
books. If it does happen, he has 200,000 readers that already read things
online, so he is confident that he can find a way to sell content to them.
He has already done some e-publishing, starting with an app for the
iPhone. He chose that market to start with because he heard that
have big fat open
wallets and low IQs", he joked. The truth is that iPhone users have
a reputation for being more willing than Android users, for example, to pay
for content. After a year with a subscription-model iPhone app, he made
$1200, which he split with the developer. That was not enough income to
continue that experiment, so
he now has free ad-supported apps for iPhones, Android, and the
iPad. The iPad is "the way to read my comic", he said, and
believes that it will be a big player in the e-comics world.
Comments (6 posted)
The Software Freedom Conservancy (SFC) has been in business for four
years, so it seems about time for the organization to have a full-time employee. But is the organization ready to support a full-time employee? What started as a small offshoot of the Software Freedom Law Center (SFLC) is now home to more than 20 open source projects, with others waiting in the wings. It has a solid set of services for its organizations, but fundraising may be a challenge for now full-time Executive Director Bradley Kuhn.
Kuhn, known for his work as Executive Director of the Free Software Foundation and later with the SFLC, has been the driving force behind the Conservancy since its inception. As he writes in his introductory post, Kuhn has been doing the work to keep the Conservancy running in his "spare" time outside of his work with the SFLC. As a part-time volunteer, Kuhn has done a remarkable job of bootstrapping the Conservancy, but additional skills will be needed to make the Conservancy self-sufficient enough to carry one or more employees.
The SFC grew out of the SFLC, and was launched in
April 2006. While the SFLC was equipped to provide pro-bono legal services
for FOSS projects, there was an obvious need for more than just legal services.
What the SFC Does
The conservancy provides several services that projects need, but that developers are not ordinarily well-equipped or enthused to do themselves. The SFC provides a non-profit umbrella for projects, so that they can receive tax-deductible donations as a 501(c)(3), and provides fundraising assistance. The SFC also helps with contract negotiation, which comes in handy when a project wants to work with a contributor company, hold a conference, or any other activities that require contracts. If desired by the project, the SFC can also hold physical and legal assets, ranging from trademarks to servers donated to a project.
In other words, the SFC performs all manner of legal and financial work on behalf of projects so that contributors can focus on the project and not administrivia.
How do the client projects feel about the SFC? Matt Mackall of the Mercurial project, says that he's pleased: "Things have been good so far. They're fairly responsive and take a load of paperwork off our plate."
Mackall, primary author and project lead for Mercurial, says that the
decision to join the SFC was spurred by a threat from BitMover to one of
Mercurial's developers. Mackall recently decided to work
on Mercurial full-time so, to enable that, donations come in for
Mercurial to the SFC. He then receives payment as an independent contractor
from the conservancy.
Aside from handling donations, Mackall says that the Conservancy has been helpful in many other ways ranging from making it possible to get T-shirts for contributors, to supporting Mercurial's licensing move from GPLv2 to GPLv2+, and assistance with developer sprints in Paris and Chicago.
The SFC isn't the only organization that does this, nor is it the
first. For instance, Software in the Public
Interest (SPI) has been serving in a similar role for Debian and other
projects for many years. Kuhn sees it as a good thing that several non-profit homes for projects exist:
Conservancy should never be the only non-profit home for FLOSS projects. In fact, we should have quite a few, for a number of reasons. First, there is a certain amount of aggregate risk that projects together in one organization share. For example, if Conservancy is sued because a company wants to attack one of its projects, the other projects would of course be impacted at least at little.
Second, not every project wants the exact service plan that Conservancy offers, so other non-profits are a better fit. Comparing Conservancy to SPI, for example, Conservancy is much more hands-on with regard to day-to-day non-profit work of a project. Some projects prefer SPI for this reason. (Obviously, I tend to think a hands-on approach helps projects navigate better, but I don't begrudge projects that don't like that and thus opt for SPI as their non-profit home.)
Comparing Apache Software Foundation to Conservancy, ASF firstly requires that projects be licensed under the Apache license, while Conservancy accepts projects under any license approved as both an Open Source and a Free Software license. Second, ASF doesn't do earmarked accounts for projects; all funds donated to Apache Software Foundation go into a general fund, and then its board (and committees appointed thereof) decide how funds are routed to individual project needs.
Next Steps for the Conservancy
Rapid growth is not in the cards for the Conservancy. In its four years,
the SFC has signed up an impressive set of projects that run the gamut from Linux distributions to media players. The list includes more than 20 projects, from major and well-established projects like Samba to smaller projects like Libbraille, which provides a shared library for easily developing software for Braille displays.
The current projects aren't the only projects that wish to join the Conservancy. Kuhn says that there's a waiting list to get in and he hopes to have the resources to accept most of those in waiting. The SFC has standardized on letting in new members twice per year, to coincide with the biannual director's meeting.
Likewise, Kuhn isn't planning to expand the services offered by the SFC
I remain open to hearing from member projects who want additional services and seeing how we can meet their needs. I think Conservancy has passed the "build it and they will come" point with great success. Now, it's a matter of listening to what member projects want additionally, while continuing to improve the level of service on things Conservancy already offers.
One of the things that the Conservancy does offer is help with license
compliance. The SFC has been busy in protecting the rights of BusyBox,
which is often shipped in embedded devices without vendors complying with
the requirements of the GPLv2. The SFC worked with the SFLC to file
suit in December of 2009 against Best Buy, Samsung, Westinghouse, JVC,
and several other companies for violating the GPLv2 in shipping BusyBox.
The SFC received a default
against Westinghouse in July for $90,000 in damages and $50,000
to cover costs of the suit. However, Kuhn says that Westinghouse is trying
to avoid paying the judgment, so it may be some time before the
Conservancy can recognize the income. When it does, Kuhn says that the any
money for damages are earmarked for the member project, while money for
costs have gone to the SFLC to help it continue to serve its members.
Expect more of the same. Kuhn says that GPL enforcement is
"definitely" an area where the SFC will be more active in
The BusyBox project leaders have asked, given my extensive GPL enforcement experience, that I give more time to making sure that companies comply with their license. Thus, Conservancy has made an agreement with the BusyBox project leaders that we'll increase the amount of GPL enforcement. Also, I've put out the offer to other member projects if they want us to do compliance work related to their licenses, Conservancy is available to do so.
Finally, Kuhn says he wants to increase the Conservancy's available operating funds, but that will depend heavily on the generosity of the community and corporate sponsors. Right now, he says that the SFC has "about six months of operating expenses in cash for 2011, so my first goal is to bring that cash fund up to a year's worth of expenses and make sure I can deliver on a sustainable budget, including one employee."
Kuhn is the first full-time employee of the SFC, which raises the question of how funds will be raised to pay Kuhn's salary going forward. How does the Conservancy plan to raise money for that and other necessary services? First off, Kuhn is "bootstrapping," the move by being a full-time volunteer until 2011. He says that the SFC will be paying only for expenses until 2011.
Will the Conservancy be tapping member projects for funds? Kuhn says yes, but only for those that wish to contribute. "As part of Conservancy's fundraising strategy, we also ask our member projects to give a small percentage of funds raised in their earmarked account back to Conservancy generally. We hope to never have to make that mandatory, although we do have to tell very large projects that are in need of a lot of services from Conservancy staff that it will be difficult to assure ongoing services without this component."
Even if all projects choose to contribute, it still won't cover all the
funding needs for a full-time salary — much less all of the services
offered by the Conservancy. To that end, Kuhn says the Conservancy will
seek "a diversified" donor base, and has been encouraging FOSS supporters to give to FOSS-related non-profits and not just the SFC:
Now that so many developers are funded to write FLOSS (which is no doubt a good thing), there's become a bit of an "I gave at the office" mentality. I strongly encourage supporters of software freedom to think about what kind of ecosystem they want: should for-profit companies have all the power, or should there be a well-funded not-for-profit space that isn't beholden to for-profit company control and money? By giving generously to the non-profits you care about, you can make a real difference regarding that question. So, I'd say that even if your readers don't like Conservancy, they should consider giving to other 501(c)(3) organizations like the FSF, GNOME Foundation, Apache Foundation, SPI, and the many other organizations in the FLOSS Foundations directory.
Kuhn says that he doesn't want to depend too heavily on corporate donors, and doesn't have a specific plan to target donations from companies. He does talk to potential sponsors at conferences, and expects a contribution for 2011 from Google. So far the Conservancy appears to have done well by its members and on a shoestring budget, but a more aggressive and targeted fundraising plan would be more comforting. This is, perhaps, an area where the Conservancy should actively seek contributors to work on a fundraising plan and specific funding targets.
Funding concerns aside, the SFC has achieved quite a bit in its four years without the benefit of having a full-time employee. Providing the SFC can meet its fundraising goals to sustain Kuhn full-time, 2011 should be a very interesting year for the organization.
Comments (4 posted)
Page editor: Jonathan Corbet
Inside this week's LWN.net Weekly Edition
- Security: Fedora accepting YubiKey one-time passwords; New vulnerabilities in acroread, kernel, openswan, xpdf, ...
- Kernel: Fanotify; ARM's multiply-mapped memory mess; Synaptics multitouch; 2.6.36 statistics.
- Distributions: The Ubuntu font and a fresh look at open font licensing; Ubuntu 10.10 released; Debian, Mageia, openSUSE, ...
- Development: UTOSC: Inexpensive audio and video recording; Firefox 4 mobile beta, GTK+/MeeGo, Linspotting, Pogo, ...
- Announcements: IBM joins Oracle for OpenJDK work; Motorola Mobility sues Apple; HTC Violates the GPL