>1. A JVM. This is the part which has been patented by SUN, and rewritten by Google.
Practically speaking, it's highly unlikely that any VM, regardless of the targetted language, doesn't infringe some of Oracle's patents. Since - unlike Sun - they've shown that they intend to use them, this means that nobody implementing a VM-based language is safe; we just need to hope that Oracle will only bother with deep-pocketted targets. Google obviously made themselves a big target by touting their Java-to-Dalvik compiler.
 Unless it's a compliant JVM *and is certified compliant by Oracle's arbitrary choice of test*.