Ok, your systems is stripped down more than mine is :-)
if you don't do an apt-get clean after doing the update debian will keep the .deb files of the packages that you downloaded around (in /var/cache/apt/archives)
if you are wanting your product to update directly from debian's public servers then you need to plan to support the large package list (any way for them to split the package list is going to put _someone's_ critical package in an optional repository), but you can run your own repository and only put packages in it that you want to make available to your product. This will also save you time in the updates.
a minor point, I'll also point out that most of this space is in /var, which is not what most people would think of when you said it was in the rootfs