Here is an example where the fields are translated so they are broken:
# (pofilter) printf: checks whether printf format strings match
msgid "%(fieldname)s: %(fieldvalue)s"
msgstr "%(veldnaam)s: %(veldwaarde)s"
So yes it will pick those up as errors. You can change the order in this type of variable also. pofilter in fact has the ability to define a collection of variables types that pofilter will check. There are special categories for Mozilla, OpenOffice.org and others. These are then also available in Pootle.
Of course variables is just one of about 45 tests.