|| ||Bas Alberts <bas.alberts-AT-immunityinc.com>|
|| ||DR Linux 2.6 rootkit released|
|| ||Wed, 03 Sep 2008 16:32:54 -0400|
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Immunity is releasing the DR Linux 2.6 IA32 rootkit under the GPLv2. It
is supported by CANVAS (and is thus commercially supported for your
penetration-testing needs) but is suitable for standalone use.
Currently the rootkit can:
o Hide processes
o Hide network sockets
o Hide files
o Get a remote MOSDEF Node (via hidden userland-backdoor)
The major benefit of the DR rootkit is that all this happens
transparently to the end user. The children of a hidden process are also
automatically hidden. The sockets a hidden process creates are also
hidden. But if you are a hidden process, you can see hidden resources.
This makes the DR rootkit nicely manageable.
DR loads via insmod - we've tested the rootkit on a number of Linux
distributions including CentOS and Ubuntu.
The CANVAS support and backdoor logic were written by Daniel Palacio
during his Immunity summer internship. He provided both the kernel hooks
and the userland backdoor to the project.
The rootkit engine (DR.c) was written by Bas Alberts and consists of a
debug register based hooking engine that does not modify the IDT or
syscall table at all. It was written as a reference implementation for
people wanting to experiment with such a rootkit technology, and was
designed to be able to integrate easily into existing syscall hook based
It has known limitations and considerations which you can read about in
the attached README.
You can find the source to the DR rootkit at:
Any questions or ideas for this project can be sent to DD or your
friendly neighborhood CANVAS support address! (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Debug Register Rootkit 0.1 - reference implementation
DR features a reference implementation of a IA32 debug register based
rootkit hooking engine. It does not modify IDT or syscall_table at all
but still provides transparent syscall hooking on IA32 Linux 2.6.
SystemCall hooking without modifying IDT, or syscall_table, at all. Not
even for a milisecond(tm). Using hardware execute and read breakpoints.
DR places a hardware breakpoint on the syscall handler, and the
resulting trap places a memory watch on the syscall_table entry for the
__NR_syscall of the intercepted syscall. It does this for both INT 0x80
and sysenter based system calls.
When the memory watch for the syscall_table entry kicks in, the trap
handler then redirects execution for that syscall to a syscall hook.
Execute global breakpoint on syscall handler in dr0, syscall is called,
breakpoint kicks in. Modified do_debug handler places global read watch
on syscall_table[__NR_syscall]. When syscall is called, memory access
breakpoint kicks in. Modified do_debug handler places function pointer
to hooked syscall in task regs eip. Execution is redirected to hooked
[ 864.447800] ******* LOADING IA32 DR HOOKING ENGINE *******
[ 864.447868] *** loader: handler for INT 128: C0104210
[ 864.447923] *** loader: syscall_table: C02FC540
[ 864.447934] *** loader: syscall_call call *table(,eax,4): C010424B
[ 864.447952] *** loader: handler for INT 1: C02F4360
[ 864.448085] *** loader: INT 1 handler patched to use __my_do_debug
[ 864.448165] *** loader: initialized hook_table
[ 864.448199] *** loader: systenter_entry call *table(,eax,4): C01041CB
[ 871.592214] *** dr0/dr1 trap: setting read watch on syscall_NR of 220
[ 871.598191] *** got dr2 trap (syscall_table watch)
[ 871.598723] *** hooked __NR_220 to E0AC7350
Using the memory watch approach, one does not have to modify IDT or
syscall_table ever. This is an original approach, but considering we
_are_ the debugger .. one could dream up a million other viable and
fruitful solutions to non-memory modifying DR rootkits.
This is a reference implementation. A lot more can be done to actually
be hidden. Production code will include kmalloc based non-LKM code
handling. Full Global Detect debug register access detection support,
and additional memory watching for the debug ENTRY call offset patch.
Additional testing is required to check for scheduler issues and other
racy problems. This reference implementation is intended as a case study
into the general rootkit approach now that the cat is out of the bag.
The provided example hooks serve as a basic example rootkit known to
suffer the following limitations:
In it's current form there is no prevention of someone else accessing
the debug registers. This could be easily added with GD access flag
control, however this is left as an exercise to the reader.
Furthermore this module behaves like a normal LKM in that is has symbols
and is resident in memory like a normal LKM. This can be bypassed by
porting the module init to a kmalloc based loading logic. To be added in
- - Detection via module based symbols
- - Detection via granted access to hardware debug registers
- - Detection via timing logic
- - Detection via open("/proc/hiddenpid/stat"); success
All hooks are defined in hooktable.h. A good example template is the
hook_example_exit function. Once a hook is added to the global hook
table, it will be automagically used by the hooking engine.
10 asmlinkage static void hook_example_exit(int status);
149 asmlinkage /* required: args passed on stack to syscall */
150 static void hook_example_exit(int status)
152 /* standard hook prologue */
153 asmlinkage int (*orig_exit)(int status);
154 void **sys_p = (void **)sys_table_global;
155 orig_exit = (int (*)())sys_p[__NR_exit];
168 return orig_exit(status);
You then initialize this function in the global hook_table as such:
121 hook_table[__NR_exit] = (void *)hook_example_exit;
The hooking engine was designed to be very friendly and open to
modification/extension. It was designed to provide a more current
hooking engine for existing sycall_table based rootkit logic. All
rootkit specific logic lives in hooktable.h.
- - move to kmalloc based init loader, -EINVAL return
- - improve hooks to do proper '/proc' and getdents handling
- - move /proc handling to inode based checks
- - instruction emulation for outside debug register access GD stylee
The debug register based hooking engine was written by Bas Alberts, all
additional hooks contained in hooktable.h, besides the example hook_exit
were written by Daniel Palacio.
1) The IA32 Software Developers Manual Vol. 3B, Chapter 18
2) Mistifying the debugger, Phrack 65-8, halfdead
email@example.com / firstname.lastname@example.org
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