Escaping the cold for 70 degree days in Los Angeles might be a reason for
some—Colorado-based LWN Editors for example—but it clearly is
not the reason that most folks choose to attend Southern
California Linux Expo (SCALE). Many of the approximately 1400 attendees already live in the region, so it
is the speakers, participants, and the expo floor that bring them in.
the sixth annual
SCALE (SCALE 6x), just held, February 8-10 and it didn't take me very long to see
why it continues to grow and prosper.
SCALE is a three day event, with two main conference days on Saturday and
Sunday and a set of mini-conferences running in parallel on Friday. Each
mini-conference covers a focused topic of interest to the community, with
this year's topics examining Women
Source (WIOS), Open Source Software in Education (OSSIE), and Demonstrating Open Source
Healthcare Solutions (DOHCS). It was a full day as each had eight or more
Allison Randal kicked off the WIOS track with a
presentation aimed at encouraging more women to give presentations at
conferences. Her talk, "The Art of Conference Presentations", was not
particularly gender specific, of course. It covered the process of proposing,
creating and giving talks to conferences. Randall's advice was cogent,
from avoiding "cute" titles to establishing credibility via your
biography without feeling like you are bragging. Her most important point was
to not wait around until you are the perfect speaker, but to go out and
start speaking; your voice and style will come with practice.
Over in the OSSIE track, Dan Anderson related his experiences teaching
computer science concepts to middle and high school students over the last
fourteen years. His approach
is to use computing as a bridge between math, science, and technology. He
discussed the process of creating, or trying to create, a stable curriculum
in the face of rapid technological change. Because the hardware, operating
systems, and languages all change quickly, his courses need to focus on
concepts that are not specific to any of those. Over the years he has
taught, the language used in the advanced placement course—dictated
state CollegeBoard company—has gone from Pascal, through C++, and now uses Java,
with some rumblings being heard about moving to Python. As he points out,
"much of what a High School student learns about technology will be
outdated by the time they graduate from college."
He uses How to Design Programs as the
core text for his courses. It uses a graphical
programming environment called DrScheme, which is based on Scheme,
that allows different subsets of the language to be used based on the skill
level of the student. Anderson has integrated various peripherals, like
cameras and audio equipment, into the environment so that students can
interact with the real world in interesting ways. His students work on
projects like voice authentication and computer vision; this year's project
is to recognize tic-tac-toe as drawn on a white board.
Other topics from OSSIE included a tutorial introduction to
the moodle content management system (CMS) for
online learning. Much like other CMS projects, moodle allows the creation
of websites with various kinds of content—audio,
video, images, and text—but organized as a course. It provides a
framework and philosophy to guide the development of online classes.
Students access the content via the web, completing tasks, taking quizzes,
and participating in forums and chats with other students.
Charles Edge (no relation) spoke about the challenges of implementing
directory services for educational institutions. One problem is that the
term "directory services" cover a large amount of ground, from tracking
users (both employees and students) to allowing single sign-on (SSO) into
multiple machines and services throughout the school. The biggest
challenge can be handling the sheer numbers of people to be tracked. Open
source solutions do exist, OpenLDAP
for storing the information, Kerberos for single sign-on and Simple Authentication and Security
Layer (SASL) for extending the reach of the SSO into other services,
but it is complex to configure and administer. For scalability and
robustness in large installations, Edge suggests Microsoft's Active
Directory, which was not a particularly popular opinion with the open
source oriented audience.
The first day closed with a WIOS panel discussion, where
six of the women presenting or showing at the conference discussed the
issues facing women in open source. The discussion was informal and
wide-ranging with a great deal of audience participation. Audience members
asked questions as well as offered opinions and theories on why the
participation of women is low and what can be done to make things better.
No real conclusions were reached, as is usual for discussions of this
topic; it is one of the more puzzling attributes of the free/open source
The animated and amusing Ubuntu community manager Jono Bacon gave a
rousing keynote to start things off on Saturday. He tried to ensure that
everyone was awake by leading a greeting in multiple languages (including
Klingon). His main point was to describe the responsibilities of the
various "factions" that jockey to determine the future of open source
software—companies, distributions, and communities—trying to
show that each has an important role. In fact, it is up to all
constituents to ensure that the greater Linux ecosystem thrives and that
each group works well with the others. It was all pretty much "motherhood and
apple pie" stuff, but well described and illustrated—all with Chuck
Norris to keep track of the score. Bacon did provide the quote of the show
when he said that free software was "started by a guy with a beard
who was pissed off at a printer."
Saturday was also the first day that the expo floor was open. Some 80
booths were there, representing companies large and small as well as lots
of free software projects. One of the more interesting booths contained a
working simulator of a 747 cockpit. All of the instruments were driven
from a realtime Linux box and the FlightGear flight simulator was used
to generate the cockpit window view. The two machines communicated over
the network and various laptops were able to view the flight from other
perspectives by getting updates from the simulator. It was rather impressive.
The linuxastronomy.org project
was also on hand with their telescope prototype. The telescope will be
controlled via a Linux machine allowing it to be pointed at locations as
specified by users. A Linux desktop application will send locations to the
telescope over the internet, allowing it to be remotely controlled so that
it can be installed in a mountaintop or other location with (relatively)
little light pollution and good viewing conditions. In addition, the
project was demonstrating many of the free astronomy programs available for
A mobile audio studio product, Indamixx, did not have a booth, but
could be seen all over the show. The company loaned two of the UMPC-based
devices to the conference which were used to do podcasts of interviews with
speakers and attendees. The device runs Linux with Audacity and ardour along with other free software. The
company has tweaked things to make it all work well and be easy to use on
the device. It looks to be quite capable as well as easily portable.
In another interesting talk, David Maxwell of Coverity gave an update on their project
to scan free software for security holes. The US Department of Homeland
Security gave Coverity a grant to work with free software projects to use
the Coverity Prevent static code analysis tool (once known
as the "Stanford Checker") on the code. The scan project has found over 7,000
defects in around a hundred free software projects since its inception. Maxwell
is the Open Source Strategist for Coverity; he is looking for more projects
to participate. He is encouraging any free/open source software project to
get in touch with him to get signed up for the program.
Projects that join get their code scanned
with a report being generated on the Coverity website for project members to
view. The projects can then fix any of the issues that are actually bugs,
mark others as "not a bug", and resubmit the code. The Coverity system
will check the latest code out of their source code repository and check it
again. Once all issues that the tool finds are handled, the project can
move up to a higher "rung on the scan ladder" which will allow them to be
scanned by more recent versions of the Coverity tool.
Bdale Garbee had perhaps the geekiest talk of the show on Saturday afternoon with
"Open Avionics for Model Rockets". Garbee gave an overview of the hobby,
which has gone far beyond the Estes rockets that many of us dabbled with in
our youth. These rockets can go to 10,000 feet and above; just how high
they go is one of the questions that led folks to start outfitting them
with instruments. Deploying the recovery system—typically a
parachute—at apogee is very desirable and a barometric sensor with a
little bit of logic tied to the ejection charge can do just that.
Unfortunately, all of the commercially available options for these systems
are completely closed; even the protocol to talk to the
device is not released by the manufacturers.
Garbee decided to once again combine one of his hobbies with open source to
design and build an open device. Both the hardware and software will be
released under free licenses (GPL and
Open Hardware License); he had
version 0.1 of the hardware (missing the accelerometer due to a problem in
the board layout) with him at the show. The AltusMetrum system also has an onboard
barometric sensor and will be able to support things like GPS devices and
radio transmitters—so that lost rockets do not stay lost. Garbee
expects to flight test the board and design version 0.2 of the hardware
over the coming months.
Sunday's keynote, by Stormy Peters of OpenLogic was entitled "Would you do
it again for free?". Peters looked at whether external rewards, usually
money, affect the motivation of open source developers; in particular, if
the pay stops, will the project work stop as well? She cited four
separate "studies" (including two that weren't intended as studies) that
seemed to show that adding a reward, or penalty, can sometimes have a counter-intuitive
effect (see an entry
in her weblog for more information).
Peters came to no firm conclusions about what the long-term effects of paying
open source developers would be, but there are some mitigating factors that
seem to provide hope that developers would continue if the paychecks
stopped. When a payment or reward is in line with expectations for doing
a particular task, it is much less demotivating. Also, if the payment is
for working on the project, not tied to a specific goal or milestone, it is
also less of a problem. Both of those are typically the case with folks
who are paid—40% of open source developers are, according to
Peters—for their work in the community.
After a last wander through the show floor, I was able to catch a few
minutes of the talk given by Ken Gilmer and Angel Roman of Bug Labs describing their modular embedded
Linux gadget building system. The system consists of a core module along
with various plug-in devices: camera, motion detector, GPS, etc. that can
be combined into a single Java programmable device. Many additional peripheral
modules are planned. The software that runs on the device is free and Bug
Labs has a community site to share application code; they are clearly
hoping that they can foster a community of users and developers.
As can be seen, SCALE offers a wide variety of technical content in a well
organized and fun conference. It has grown beyond the capacity of the
Airport Westin where it has been held for the last few years; expect a new,
bigger venue somewhere in LA next year. Over the last few years, SCALE has
drawn from more areas of the southwest US in moving from a small, local
conference to a regional one. If things continue, in another few years it
may grow into a national conference; one can only hope that if that
happens, it will continue to be as well run and interesting as it is today.
Comments (12 posted)
The X window system is the kernel of the desktop Linux experience; if X
does not work well, nothing built on top of it will work well either. Despite
its crucial role, X suffered from relative neglect for a number of years
before being revitalized by the X.org project. Two talks at linux.conf.au
covered the current state of the X window system and where we can expect
things to go in the near future.
Keith Packard is a fixture at Linux-related events, so it was no surprise
to see him turn up at LCA. His talk covered X at a relatively high,
feature-oriented level. There is a lot going on with X, to say the least.
Keith started, though, with the announcement that Intel had released
complete documentation for some of its video chips - a welcome move, beyond
There are a lot of things that X.org is shooting for in the near future.
The desktop should be fully composited, allowing software layers to provide
all sorts of interesting effects. There should be no tearing (the
briefly inconsistent windows which result from partial updates). We need
integrated 2D and 3D graphics - a goal which is complicated by the fact
that the 2D and 3D APIs do not talk to each other. A flicker-free boot
(where the X server starts early and never restarts) is on most
distributors' wishlist. Other desired features include fast and secure
user switching, "hotplug everywhere," reduced power consumption, and a
reduction in the (massive) amount of code which runs with root privileges.
So where do things stand now? 2D graphics and textured video work well.
Overlaid video (where video data is sent directly to the frame
buffer - a performance technique used by some video playback applications)
does not work with compositing, though. 3D graphics does not always work
that well either; Keith put up the classic example of glxgears running
while the window manager is doing the "desktops on a cube" routine - the 3D
application runs outside of the normal composite mechanism and so cannot be
rotated with all the other windows.
On the tearing front, only 3D graphics supports no-tearing operations now.
Avoiding tearing is really just a matter of waiting for the video retrace
before making changes, but the 2D API lacks support for that.
The integration of APIs is an area requiring some work still. One problem
is that Xv (video) output cannot be drawn offscreen - again, a problem for
compositing. Some applications still use overlays, which really just have
no place on the contemporary desktop. It is impossible to do 3D graphics
to or from pixmaps, which defeats any attempt to pass graphical data
between the 2D and 3D APIs. On the other side, 2D operations do not
Fast user switching can involve switching between virtual terminals, which
is "painful." Only one user session can be running 3D graphics at a time,
which is a big limitation. On the hotplug front, there are some
limitations on how the framebuffer is handled. In particular, the X server
cannot resize the framebuffer, and it can only associate one framebuffer
with the graphics processor. Some GPUs have maximum line widths, so the
one-framebuffer issue limits the maximum size of the internal desktop.
With regard to power usage: Keith noted that using framebuffer compression
in the Intel driver saves 1/2 watt of power. But there are a number of
things to be fixed yet. 2D graphics busy-waits on the GPU, meaning that a
graphics-intensive program can peg the system's CPU, even though the GPU is
doing all of the real work. But the GPU could be doing more as well; for
example, video playback does most of the decoding, rescaling, and color
conversion in the CPU. But contemporary graphics processors can do all of
that work - they can, for example, take the bit stream directly from a DVD
and display it. The GPU requires less power than the CPU, so shifting that
work over would be good for power consumption as well as system
Having summarized the state of the art, Keith turned his attention to the
future. There is quite a bit of work being done in a number of areas - and
not being done in others - which leads toward a better X for everybody. On
the 3D compositing front, what's needed is to eliminate the "shared back
buffers" used for 3D rendering so that the rendered output can be handled
like any other graphical data.
Eliminating tearing requires providing the ability to synchronize with the
vertical retrace operation in the graphics card. The core mechanism to do
this is already there in the form of the X Sync extension. But, says
Keith, nobody is working on bringing all of this together at the moment.
Getting rid of boot-time flickering, instead, is a matter of getting the X
server properly set up sufficiently early in the process. That's mostly a
To further integrate APIs, one thing which must be done is to get rid of
overlays and to allow all graphical operations (including Xv operations) to
draw into pixmaps. There is a need for some 3D extensions to create a
channel between GLX and pixmaps.
Supporting fast user switching means adding the ability to work with
multiple DRM master. Framebuffer resizing, instead, means moving
completely over to the EXA acceleration architecture and finishing the
transition to the TTM memory
manager. In the process, it may become necessary to break all existing
DRI applications, unfortunately. And multiple framebuffer support is the
objective of a project called "shatter," which will allow screens to be
split across framebuffers.
Improving the power consumption means getting rid of the busy-waiting with
2D graphics (Keith say the answer is simple: "block"). The XvMC protocol
should be extended beyond MPEG; in particular, it needs work to be able to
properly support HDTV. All of this stuff is currently happening.
Finally, on the security issue, Keith noted the ongoing work to move
graphical mode setting into the kernel. That will eliminate the need for
the server to directly access the hardware - at least, when DRM-based 2D
graphics are being done. In that case, it will become possible to run the
X server as "nobody," eliminating all privilege. There are few people who
would argue against the idea of taking root privileges away from a massive
program like the X server.
In a separate talk, Dave Airlie covered the state of Linux graphics at a
lower level - support for graphics adapters. He, too, talked about moving
graphical mode setting into the kernel, bringing an end to a longstanding
"legacy issue" and turning the X server into just a rendering system. That
will reduce security problems and help with other nagging issues (graphical
boot, suspend and resume) as well.
Mode setting is the biggest area of work at the moment. Beyond that, the
graphics developers are working on getting TTM into the kernel; this will
give them a much better handle on what is happening with graphics memory.
Then, graphics drivers are slowly being reworked around the Gallium3D
architecture. This will improve and simplify these drivers significantly, but "it's
going to be a while" before this work is ready. The upcoming DRI2 work will improve buffering and
fix the "glxgears on a cube" problem.
Moving on to graphics adapters: AMD/ATI has, of course, begun the process
of releasing documentation for its hardware. This happened in an
interesting way, though: AMD went to SUSE in order to get a driver
developed ahead of the documentation release; the result was the "radeonhd"
driver. Meanwhile, the Avivo project, which had been reverse-engineering
ATI cards, had made significant progress toward a working driver. Dave
took that work and the AMD documentation to create the
improved "radeon" driver. So now there are two competing projects writing
drivers for ATI adapters. Dave noted that code is moving in both
directions, though, so it is not a complete duplication of work. (As an
aside, from what your editor has heard, most observers expect the radeon
driver to win out in the end).
The ATI R500 architecture is a logical addition to the earlier (supported)
chipsets, so R500 support will come relatively quickly. R600, instead, is
a totally new processor, so R600 owners will be "in for a wait" before a
working driver is available.
Intel has, says Dave, implemented the "perfect solution": it develops free
drivers for its own hardware. These drivers are generally well done and
well documented. Intel is "doing it right."
NVIDIA, of course, is not doing it right. The Nouveau driver is coming
along, now, with 5-6 developers working on it. Dave had an RandR
implementation in a state of half-completion for some time; he finally
decided that he would not be able to push it forward and merged it into the
mainline repository. Since then, others have run with it and RandR support
is moving forward quickly. It was, he says, a classic example of why it is
good to get the code out there early, whether or not it is "ready."
Performance is starting to get good, to the point that NVIDIA suddenly
added some new acceleration improvements to its binary-only driver.
Dave is still hoping that NVIDIA might yet release some documents - if it
happens by next year, he says, he'll stand in front of the room and dance a
Comments (69 posted)
of this retrospective
ended in October, 2002, when LWN adopted its current subscription model.
That change brought a certain amount of stability for LWN (too much, we
might argue), but, in the wider Linux world, things continued to happen.
This installment picks up where the last left off.
During this period, the business of Linux was relatively quiet - not that
many acquisitions, but not many failures either. But quite a bit was
happening around legal issues, copyright enforcement, and more...
- October 10, 2002:
BitKeeper flames return as the non-compete clause in its license comes
The sendmail source distribution is trojaned.
BitKeeper flames were a more-or-less constant feature in those days, but BitKeeper
became an established part of the kernel development process anyway.
In the October 10, 2002 edition, your editor wrote: "If Larry
McVoy (or his board of directors) wakes up hung over one morning and
decides to end free access to BitKeeper, the show is over." That
was, unfortunately, an example of your editor's crystal ball working rather
better than usual.
The trojaning of sendmail was the first of a few such incidents. It looked
like a scary trend for a while, but, in fact, the frequency of this kind of
attack has dropped quite a bit in the intervening years.
- October 31, 2002: the
first cryptographic code is finally merged into the Linux kernel. The
first Reiser4 snapshot is posted.
- December 19, 2002: The
Creative Commons project is launched. ElcomSoft (Dmitry Sklyarov's
employer) is acquitted of DMCA violation charges. Kernel developers
start to complain that the 2.5 feature freeze is thawing.
- January 16, 2003: The
U.S. Supreme Court decides in favor of unlimited copyright term
extensions. MandrakeSoft enters bankruptcy. The SCO Group starts
making noises about its "Unix IP."
- January 30, 2003: SCO
forms SCOSource and makes rather more dire noises about Linux.
By this point, there was a certain amount of discomfort over the direction
SCO was taking. But nobody had any clue of just how weird it would
Remember the days of disruptive worms? MS-SQL was one of the scariest, in
that it did most of its propagation in just a few minutes. We don't see to
many worms like that anymore; contemporary crackers prefer to turn systems
into zombies and rent them out.
And so it began, with SCO telling the world that the Linux community could
not possibly have achieved what it did unless the work had been stolen by
For the remainder of this retrospective, your editor will attempt to keep
the number of SCO-related entries to a minimum. It has been quite an
experience to go back and reread all of those
McBride/Enderle/Boies/DiDio/Lyons/etc. quotes, and it is tempting to put
them all here. But that temptation will be resisted; those who want to
relive that bit of bizarre history in more detail can read the LWN pages
directly or dig through the considerable resources at Groklaw.
SCO is about as scary as Y2K now, but, in 2003, the SCO suit was a
frightening event. To many of us it seemed possible that, maybe, one out
of thousands of developers might have slipped something improper into the
kernel code base. And, in any case, we were under attack by a company with
millions of dollars to burn and a loud-mouthed CEO. The whole thing cost
us a lot of time and anxiety - and, for those most directly involved -
Nonetheless, your editor will reiterate his claim that, overall, the SCO
attack has been good for us. We needed to improve our legal defenses; as
Linux grew, there could be no doubt that people would attempt to use the
legal system to grab a piece of the pie. In SCO we had an arrogant assailant
with no substance; we were attacked by a clown. We got the ability to
straighten up our processes, arrange better legal help, and prove that our
code is clean without the inconvenience of facing a complaint with a bit of
legitimacy. The community is now close to immune from copyright-based
attack, and is much better poised to deal with similar attackers (patent
trolls, for example) who could still do us some serious damage.
- March 27, 2003: Keith
Packard is kicked out of the XFree86 core team. Red Hat Linux 9
- the last Red Hat Linux release - is announced.
- May 15, 2003: SCO
suspends Linux sales and sends a warning letter to 1500 Linux users.
- May 22, 2003: The GNU and
Ghostscript projects part ways. Microsoft buys a $10 million
Unix license from SCO.
- May 29, 2003: Novell
claims that it, not SCO, owns Unix. Kernel developers get upset about
the fact that there has been no 2.4 kernel release for six months.
The 2.5 kernel gets a reworked char device layer, IDE tagged command
queueing support and the USB gadget subsystem - seven months into the 2.5
feature freeze. The city of Munich decides to move to Linux.
Novell's claim was clearly significant at the time, though it fell below
the radar again for several months. In the end, of course, this was the
factor which killed SCO. That is convenient, but almost unfortunate too:
there would have been value in seeing the substance of SCO's claims
demolished in court.
In these days of fast releases, it is interesting to consider that, for the
first half of 2003, there were no stable kernel releases at all.
- June 19, 2003: Linus
Torvalds moves to OSDL. The kernel gets a massively reworked ext3
filesystem - eight months into the feature freeze. SCO raises its
claim for damages to $3 billion and "terminates" IBM's AIX
license. Software patents return to the European Parliament.
- July 10, 2003: Andrew
Morton moves to OSDL.
OSDL was often controversial in the Linux community, but nobody doubted
that providing a home for developers like Linus and Andrew was a good
thing. Until now, neither had held a job where working on Linux was their
Meanwhile, few suspected how big the software patent battle in Europe would
become - or that the anti-patent side would emerge victorious (for now).
- July 17, 2003: The
2.6.0-test1 kernel is released; it includes the new anticipatory disk
I/O scheduler. Slackware celebrates its 10th anniversary. The
Mozilla Foundation is created.
- July 24, 2003: Red Hat
gets out of the boxed distribution business. Mozilla starts
requesting donations from users.
Selling Linux in boxes was how Red Hat got going, so the end of that
business was a clear sign that things had changed. The separation of
Mozilla and AOL (which had bought Netscape) was a little scary at the time;
it seemed that the project could fade away before the Mozilla browser became
truly ready and that it was an Internet Explorer future for all of us.
Things were a little lean at Mozilla for a while. Now that Mozilla is
bringing in tens of millions of dollars every year, the idea that it once
sought donations is amusing.
- August 7, 2003: Novell
acquires Ximian. Red Hat files suit against SCO. SCO offers the
"intellectual property license for Linux." SELinux is merged for the
- August 21, 2003: SCO
shows some "copied code."
SCO, remember, "encrypted" its slides of "copied" code by switching them to
a Greek font - a scheme which the community, somehow, managed to overcome.
The code in question was straight from ancient Unix; it had been
contributed by SGI, and had already been removed by the time it was
revealed. After this, nobody worried that SCO might come up with the
"millions of lines" of code that, it said, it could prove it owned.
- September 25, 2003: The
Fedora project launches. Software patents pass in the European
Parliament. Sun's Jonathan Schwartz says "We do not believe
that Linux plays a role on the server. Period."
- October 16, 2003: Under
pressure from the FSF and others, LinkSys releases source for its
Fedora started with all kinds of talk about what a community-oriented
project it would be. The reality was rather slower in coming, but is
beginning to be visible now. Meanwhile, Fedora was a useful (and used)
distribution from the outset.
The LinkSys settlement was the result of a long battle. It was an important
early GPL enforcement action which led to the creation of a number of
distributions created for the sole purpose of doing interesting things on
LinkSys routers. The ironic result is that LinkSys almost certainly sold
quite a few more units than it would have if it had continued to hold on to
- October 23, 2003: SCO
gets $50 million from BayStar.
- November 6, 2003: Novell
acquires SUSE. A fight erupts over the "Linux Gazette" name.
- December 24, 2003: SCO
claims ownership of the Unix ABI. The 2.6.0 kernel is released. Red
Hat acquires Sistina. The Mozilla Foundation asks for more
2.6.0 took almost exactly three years after 2.4.0 came out. For the few
developers who had observed the 2.4 feature freezes, their code - which
could be four years old at this point - was only now making it into an
official mainline release. It was not yet understood at this point, but,
once 2.6.0 came out, the "new kernel development model" started to take
shape. Never again would we go years between major stable releases.
- January 22, 2004: SCO
files its "slander of title" suit against Novell. Linus gets dunked.
- January 29, 2004:
UnitedLinux dies a quiet death. SCO sends a letter to the
U.S. Congress. Version 2 of the Apache License is adopted.
- February 5, 2004: XFree86
leader David Dawes changes the project's license.
There had been trouble in XFree86 for a long time, but the license change
brought it all to a head. This was the move which killed XFree86, led to
the creation of the revitalized X.org, and, eventually, brought life back
to X development.
The first Grumpy Editor
article was never intended to be the beginning of a series; your editor
was simply grumpy that the Galeon browser had gone the route of many early
GNOME 2.x applications: less configurability, fewer features, and worse
performance. The persona proved popular with readers, though, and the
Grumpy Editor has been making irregular appearances on LWN ever since.
- February 19, 2004: The
Netfilter team settles its first GPL enforcement action in Europe.
- February 26, 2004: X11
development moves to the freedesktop.org project. MandrakeSoft is
ordered by a French court to stop using the "Mandrake" name.
- March 4, 2004: SCO sues
AutoZone and DaimlerChrysler. EV1Servers.Net buys an expensive SCO
license - a move they certainly still regret. FreeS/WAN shuts down.
The attack on Linux users had been long foreshadowed - and feared.
Regardless of the validity of its claims, SCO could certainly make life
hard for Linux by attacking those who use it. The attacks were so
laughable, though, that they had no appreciable effect, even in the short
- March 11, 2004: The
Anderer memo surfaces, tying SCO to Microsoft. The tenth anniversary
of the green card spam.
- March 18, 2004: Open
Source Risk Management launches. MandrakeSoft files its plan to exit
For those who don't remember, OSRM was a scheme to sell insurance against
legal attacks to users of free software. But, by this point, nobody was
all that worried about SCO, and OSRM never did take off. On the other
hand, MandrakeSoft did succeed in getting out of bankruptcy and is still
- March 25, 2004: BitMover
claims that the pace of kernel development has doubled as a result of
the adoption of BitKeeper.
This installment started with BitKeeper, and will end there. For all the
complaints about BitKeeper and its associated "don't piss off Larry"
license, few could contest the claim that kernel development was proceeding
at a much faster pace. We needed a tool like that. To this day, it
remains discouraging that we were not able to develop a distributed
revision control system for ourselves until Larry McVoy and BitMover showed
the way. If there was ever an itch in need of scratching, this was it.
The next installment (which will most likely appear two weeks from now)
will start with April, 2004 and come fairly close to the present. Stay
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Page editor: Jake Edge
Inside this week's LWN.net Weekly Edition
- Security: Eee PC security or lack thereof; New vulnerabilities in clamav, firefox, java, kernel, ...
- Kernel: Before the 2.6.25 merge window closed; linux-next and patch management process; vmsplice(): the making of a local root exploit.
- Distributions: Autodownloading considered harmful; Nexenta Core Platform 1.0; OpenSolaris Developer Preview 2; The Fedora 8 Xfce Spin; Fedora 9 Alpha Jigdo; Fedora 8 Re-Spin; Debian Lenny news; Ubuntu Developer Week; Vector Linux 5.9 review
- Development: The Chandler Project moves forward, Perl is now Y2038 safe, new versions of pgDesigner, SQLite, OpenNMS, OpenSwing, Ardour, CLAM, gEDA/gaf, Wine, Claws Mail, Open Movie Editor, SANE-Backends, LLVM, libLASi, RNV, MicroNova YUZU, GIT, YALC.
- Press: Interview with Miro's Nicholas Reville, malicious DNS servers, Mobile World Congress coverage, the Zvents Hypertable project, the Linux PR problem, interviews with Mark Kretschmann and Michael Shiloh, four virtualization products reviewed.
- Announcements: Bruce Perens delivers state of open source message, Mobile World Congress
announcements, AMD's open GPU documentation site, DreamWorks wins award,
CMG'08 cfp, KDevelop developers meeting - Munich, Northern California