|| ||Yasunori Goto <email@example.com>|
|| ||linux-mm <firstname.lastname@example.org>|
|| ||[RFC] Document about lowmem_reserve_ratio|
|| ||Fri, 18 Jan 2008 14:37:18 +0900|
|| ||Andrew Morton <email@example.com>,
Linux Kernel ML <firstname.lastname@example.org>,
Andrea Arcangeli <email@example.com>|
I found the documentation about lowmem_reserve_ratio is not written, and
the lower_zone_protection's description remains yet. I fixed it.
I may be something wrong due to misunderstanding. And probably, sentence
is not natural. (I'm not native English speaker.)
So, please review it.
Though the lower_zone_protection was changed to lowmem_reserve_ratio,
the document has been not changed.
The lowmem_reserve_ratio seems quite hard to estimate, but there is
no guidance. This patch is to change document for it.
Signed-off-by: Yasunori Goto <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt | 76 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++--------
1 file changed, 61 insertions(+), 15 deletions(-)
--- current.orig/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt 2008-01-17 20:01:37.000000000 +0900
+++ current/Documentation/filesystems/proc.txt 2008-01-18 12:22:10.000000000 +0900
@@ -1311,7 +1311,7 @@
If non-zero, this sysctl disables the new 32-bit mmap mmap layout - the kernel
will use the legacy (2.4) layout for all processes.
For some specialised workloads on highmem machines it is dangerous for
@@ -1331,25 +1331,71 @@
mechanism will also defend that region from allocations which could use
highmem or lowmem).
-The `lower_zone_protection' tunable determines how aggressive the kernel is
-in defending these lower zones. The default value is zero - no
-protection at all.
+The `lowmem_reserve_ratio' tunable determines how aggressive the kernel is
+in defending these lower zones.
If you have a machine which uses highmem or ISA DMA and your
applications are using mlock(), or if you are running with no swap then
-you probably should increase the lower_zone_protection setting.
+you probably should change the lowmem_reserve_ratio setting.
-The units of this tunable are fairly vague. It is approximately equal
-to "megabytes," so setting lower_zone_protection=100 will protect around 100
-megabytes of the lowmem zone from user allocations. It will also make
-those 100 megabytes unavailable for use by applications and by
-pagecache, so there is a cost.
-The effects of this tunable may be observed by monitoring
-/proc/meminfo:LowFree. Write a single huge file and observe the point
-at which LowFree ceases to fall.
+The lowmem_reserve_ratio is an array. You can see them by reading this file.
+% cat /proc/sys/vm/lowmem_reserve_ratio
+256 256 32
+Note: # of this elements is one fewer than number of zones. Because the highest
+ zone's value is not necessary for following calculation.
+But, these values are not used directly. The kernel calculates # of protection
+pages for each zones from them. These are shown as array of protection pages
+in /proc/zoneinfo like followings. (This is an example of x86-64 box).
+Each zone has an array of protection pages like this.
+Node 0, zone DMA
+ pages free 1355
+ min 3
+ low 3
+ high 4
+ numa_other 0
+ protection: (0, 2004, 2004, 2004)
+ cpu: 0 pcp: 0
+These protections are added to score to judge whether this zone should be used
+for page allocation or should be reclaimed.
+In this example, if normal pages (index=2) are required to this DMA zone and
+pages_high is used for watermark, the kernel judges this zone should not be
+used because pages_free(1355) is smaller than watermark + protection
+(4 + 2004 = 2008). If this protection value is 0, this zone would be used for
+normal page requirement. If requirement is DMA zone(index=0), protection
+(=0) is used.
+zone[i]'s protection[j] is calculated by following exprssion.
+(i < j):
+ = (total sums of present_pages from zone[i+1] to zone[j] on the node)
+ / lowmem_reserve_ratio[i];
+(i = j):
+ (should not be protected. = 0;
+(i > j):
+ (not necessary, but looks 0)
+The default values of lowmem_reserve_ratio[i] are
+ 256 (if zone[i] means DMA or DMA32 zone)
+ 32 (others).
+As above expression, they are reciprocal number of ratio.
+256 means 1/256. # of protection pages becomes about "0.39%" of total present
+pages of higher zones on the node.
-A reasonable value for lower_zone_protection is 100.
+If you would like to protect more pages, smaller values are effective.
+The minimum value is 1 (1/1 -> 100%).
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