the operation of J2EE code without a server in an O'Reilly
"Thanks to modern notions like inversion-of-control (IoC) and aspect-oriented programming (AOP) represented in lightweight containers like the Spring framework, the programming model for J2EE can be made a lot simpler and more elegant. Nevertheless, even with these tools, the application server still remains an important source of complexity and cost. This article proposes a further simplification of J2EE, by showing a way to eliminate the overhead of the runtime platform: the application server. In particular, this article shows that many applications no longer need an application server to run.
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