The last issue of December is traditionally a time for many publications to
look back at the past year. As we live through a year, it can be a hard
time to get a perspective on all that is happening; a review can help
develop a better understanding of what we have all experienced.
Besides, there's usually not much more to write about at the end of
In past years, your editor has reviewed the predictions made at the
beginning of the year. That exercise seems a little self-indulgent this
time around. So suffice to say that some of last January's predictions have
been borne out, and others not. We'll not go through all of them here.
Starting with one which didn't work out:
your editor's prediction that 2005 would see the end of SCO
was optimistic. We have seen the end of SCO in every way that
matters; what remains, at this point, is the ghoulish exercise of watching
it all fall apart and seeing where the pieces land. Following SCO is a
waste of time at this point, a morbid and pointless exercise in the
consequences of stupid decisions. We're looking forward to every minute of
Your editor's prediction that software patents would not be enacted in
Europe looked optimistic, especially in the first half of the year,
but turned out to be correct in the end. More to
the point, though: the free software community enjoyed legal victories in
almost every battle which was decided this year. No software patents, no
broadcast flag, the GPL upheld in German court, FAT patents thrown out,
etc. Next year may be tougher, but, for this year, we can all raise a
glass and toast our victories. It is not all hopeless.
Let us not forget our defeats, however. The Grokster decision holds
software developers responsible for the actions of their users - in some
situations, at least. The bnetd decision placed limits on our right to
create interoperable software. The situation is not all rosy either.
One battle which came to head this year was open formats: as of this
writing, the state of Massachusetts is still fighting over a mandate to use
open formats in government. Open access to government documents is a clear
requirement for a free society; it seems amazing that there is even a fight
on this issue. Open formats are also a key to the desktop for free
software. This is an important issue, and the debate has barely begun.
The free software community has acquired a pool of patents of its own.
Donations - of greater or lesser freedom - came from IBM, Sun, Nokia,
Computer Associates, and others. These patents can help to prevent attacks
from competitors in the software industry - though they will do little to
deter lawyer-only patent troll firms. But a partial solution is better
than none; one might well conclude that the risk of a patent attack against
free software is, while still significant, lower than it was a year ago.
For years, we have talked about the evils of digital restrictions
management schemes and the dangers inherent in not having control over our
own systems. But we can thank SonyBMG for making these points clear to a
much larger audience. "Consumers" everywhere have seen what happens when
others claim control over their systems. People who bought CDs because it
was the right thing to do saw that they were punished for it. Their desire
to do the right thing will be much reduced - and the entertainment industry
must know it. The DRM battle is far from over, and we have a great deal of
ugliness to endure yet. But SonyBMG may have shortened the process for us
2005 was, perhaps, the year of the foundation. A number of projects,
including Zope, Ubuntu, and OpenPKG created independent foundations to look
after their code. Red Hat also announced the creation of a Fedora
foundation, but, the better part of a year later, that foundation has yet
to materialize. The fundamental motivation behind all this founding of
foundations is easily found: software (even free software) controlled by a
single company tends to make other users nervous. The creation of an
independent foundation gives others confidence in a free software project's
The free software business world continues to develop. MandrakeSoft and
Conectiva merged into Mandriva, Novell went through some difficulties but
looks like it may be pulling things together, and the flow of venture
capital toward free software businesses increased. HP claimed to have
shipped over 1 million Linux servers. It seems there really is
business to be done around free software.
Meanwhile, the code continues to get better. The list of significant
releases is far too large to review here - check the latest version of your
favorite distribution to see much of it. Our development community is
active and healthy; it is producing results that few would have thought
possible even a few years ago. Ups and downs notwithstanding, 2005 has
been a good year for the community. We can all raise a glass to that.
Comments (21 posted)
For eight years now, the editors at LWN.net have put together a timeline
highlighting the most important events of the last twelve months. As
always, it has been a busy year. Attacks against free software continued
in legislatures and the courts - but few have been successful.
Corporations began donating patents to the community, some with more
enthusiasm than others. The kernel developers improved their process - and
dealt with the abrupt loss of their source code management system. SUSE
development became more open. SonyBMG gave us all a lesson on the
importance of control over our own computers. And so on.
Most importantly, in 2005 the free software community kept on hacking. The
variety and quality of the resulting software is simply amazing. The free
software community is healthy and growing, despite the legal problems,
corporate layoffs, hardware hassles, and occasional petty internal
bickering. We are going strong.
This is version 1.0 of the 2005 timeline.
If you find any errors or remaining major omissions, please send them
to us at email@example.com; please do
not post errors or omissions as comments until after we have had a chance
to address them.
The development of the LWN.net Linux Timeline was supported by LWN
subscribers; if you like what you see, please consider subscribing to LWN.
As usual, the timeline is split up by month. One of these years, we really
will restore the "one big page" option, honest.
For the historically minded, the timelines for the previous seven years
Thanks to the following people who have helped improve the 2005 Timeline:
Ross Combs, Bernhard Reiter, Karl Schendel, and David A. Wheeler.
Comments (3 posted)
version of the X server built on top of the OpenGL API. Many developers
see the XGL approach as the way forward; as video hardware becomes
increasingly 3D-only, OpenGL offers a uniform way to drive that hardware.
Once an XGL server becomes available, the door will be opened for all kinds
of fast 2D and 3D applications.
As it turns out, there is a paid development team working at XGL; these
developers are hosted at Novell. This work is being funded with the
apparent idea of upgrading the free XGL server and benefiting the free
software community in general. So it is interesting to see a significant
amount of criticism of Novell's work in the desktop community.
The problem comes down to this: all of Novell's work is being done
in-house, using a private repository. The wider community knows that this
work is going on, and has some idea of what has been done, but none of the
resulting code has been seen beyond Novell. The best description of what
is happening - and the reaction to it - can be found in Aaron
Seigo's weblog. There we see that the non-Novell developers who would
like to hack on XGL are frustrated. They know that a number of problems
have already been fixed by Novell, but the code is not available. They
fear that much of the work they are doing will be duplicated by what the
Novell team does. They feel locked out, and wonder about Novell's reasons
for taking this approach.
Everybody seems to assume that Novell's work will, eventually, see the
light of day and be contributed back - though the X license does not
require that. But that release will confront the community with a large
dump of corporate code. It will not have been reviewed by anybody outside
of Novell, it may well incorporate design decisions which are not
acceptable to other developers, and it is likely to duplicate and conflict
with any work done by the rest of the community. The possibility that
Novell will hold the code until it has packaged it into a SUSE Linux
release is also somewhat annoying.
In the absence of a statement from Novell, one can only speculate on why
this approach is being taken. It is possible that Novell is just trying to
avoid dealing with developers who oppose the XGL project in the first
place. At the moment, it is almost impossible to use XGL without
proprietary drivers; developers who feel strongly about avoiding
proprietary code would thus rather take a different approach - and they
have been rather vocal about that. It is also possible that Novell is
simply looking to "get the job done" its way, without the distractions of
dealing with the community.
This situation should work out in the end, once Novell releases its code
and the process of merging begins. At that point, with luck, the X
community will have a much-improved XGL server to work with. But the
memory of having been locked out of the process will persist for some
time. One can only hope that this code release happens soon so that the
next phase can begin.
Comments (11 posted)
The writing has been on the wall for some time, but now it's official:
Internet Explorer on the OS X platform will go unsupported at the end
of 2005. This browser has seen no active development since 2003, but its
users were at least provided with security updates. No more; IE for the
Mac is at a dead end.
There is little that OS X users can do about this decision. IE is very
much a closed-source application, so there is no way for anybody to take
over its maintenance after Microsoft walks away. This browser is dead, and
its users have no choice but to seek alternatives; fortunately, a number of
good alternatives exist. But anybody who was truly dependent on this piece
of software is out of luck. It is always this way with proprietary
software; it can disappear out from under you at its owner's whim.
Earlier this year, the Mozilla Foundation announced that it was
discontinuing support for the Mozilla browser suite. The Foundation saw
its future in the independent Firefox and Thunderbird applications, and
felt that the time had come to move past its one-time flagship suite.
Mozilla users, of whom there are many, had little say in this decision; the
Foundation makes its own decisions on how best to pursue its goals.
But Mozilla is free software. So a group of dedicated users came together
to continue the maintenance and development of the Mozilla suite, using the
old SeaMonkey name. Mozilla/SeaMonkey is a large body of code, not
something to be taken on lightly. But the SeaMonkey hackers thought that
they could handle it.
On December 19, these hackers announced
the availability of SeaMonkey 1.0 Beta. The release includes a number of
new features, including drag-and-drop tabs, SVG support, "blazingly fast
back," and much more. It provides the full suite of tools: web browser,
email client, HTML editor, IRC chat tool, DOM inspector, and two varieties
of kitchen sink. This is the full suite, updated with the latest work from
Firefox and elsewhere. The SeaMonkey hackers would appear to be up to the
And, yes, it works on OS X.
It would be hard to come up with a better example of why free software
matters. There are a great many Mozilla users who will never look at the
code, but they will still benefit from the freedom of that code. As long
as there is a sufficient interest in the community, Mozilla, in the form of
SeaMonkey, will live on. No proprietary software has such a bright future.
Comments (11 posted)
As is traditional, LWN will be taking next week off; the next Weekly
Edition will come out on January 5, 2006. We'll be posting news items
occasionally over the break, however. Best wishes for a great holiday season from
all of us here at LWN!
Comments (4 posted)
Page editor: Jonathan Corbet
Inside this week's LWN.net Weekly Edition
- Security: CAN-SPAM: mission accomplished?; New vulnerabilities in fetchmail, ffmpeg, openldap, sudo, ...
- Kernel: Several proposed new system calls; Semaphores and mutexes.
- Distributions: It's a LINI; Debian GNU/Linux 3.1r1; Edubuntu flight 2 CD; Fedora Core 5 Test 2 slip; GenieOS
- Development: ClaSS - a Web-Based Student Information System, CL Gardeners,
new versions of MySQL, Samba, Quixote, Sugar Suite, GARNOME, GNOME,
X11, g3dviewer, Qt, OpenOffice.org, Chandler, Jacareto, Amara, Git,
- Press: Richard Stallman interview, Holland Open Software Platform,
Quanta to build $100 laptop, Microsoft in Italian Schools,
ODF-MS XML Timeline, High Dynamic Range images, KPilot replacement.
- Announcements: Eagle 4.16, Mandriva ships Skype, Access2PostgreSQL Sync,
Analog Hole Bill, KDE Web Dev 2005, Intranet Configuration,
OSV Copyright and Patents FAQ, ESC 2006, Notacon CFP, OLS CFP,
SE Linux Symposium, X@FOSDEM, X Dev Con, Emerging Telephony Site.
- Letters: Technical discussions and flames.