Managing large networks is a challenging task in a number of ways. One of
those challenges is dealing with user information throughout a large
institution. A single system can keep that information in
, and a small network can rely on tools like
or NIS. When the scale of the network gets large enough,
however, and a sufficient number of levels of politics gets in the way,
simple tools will no longer do the job in an easy or reliable manner. There
comes a point where this information needs to live in a central database
and be made available as needed across the network.
The larger proprietary software vendors - Microsoft, Sun, Novell, etc. -
have long offered directory server products aimed at large network
("enterprise") deployment. These products not only make basic user
information available network-wide; they can also be used to distribute a
wider array of information. Directory servers are a useful and necessary
tool, and the competition in this area is fierce.
Red Hat has set itself up to compete directly with the other "enterprise"
software companies. To that end, Red Hat has put together a number of valuable products and
services, but, so far, it has not been able to offer a directory server as
part of its solution. That gap in Red Hat's offerings has increasingly
looked like a liability, especially as Novell increases its efforts to
compete in the same space. So Red Hat needed a directory server. It found
one, some time ago, when it acquired many of the remaining bits of Netscape
from AOL. Since the acquisition, however, little has been heard about the
former Netscape's offerings.
Until now. On June 1, Red Hat announced
the availability of its directory server product. The (now) Red Hat Directory
Server is fast, with an impressive array of capabilities; for the full
list, see the
product sheet [PDF]. The directory server product is sold like Red Hat
Enterprise Linux: by subscription. Pricing is not yet available.
The Red Hat Directory Server also resembles RHEL in another way: it has a Fedora
equivalent. The Fedora Directory Server Project is where the
development work will be done; the site offers source, documentation,
mailing lists, etc. It is, in other words, just another free software
At the Fedora site, one can see that, in fact, not all of the directory
server code has been released - yet. The server itself is available under
a special GPL+Exception
license. The code is generally governed by the terms of the GPL, with
the exception that plugin modules can remain proprietary. Those modules,
however, must restrict themselves to a carefully-specified set of
interfaces; anything linking to any other part of the server can only be
distributed under the GPL. Other parts of the system - the management
console and admin server components - remain non-free, though they are
available in binary format. Red Hat plans to free that code as well, but
some work is involved; those components are written in Java, and do not
play well with the free Java implementations.
The Fedora project has some ambitious goals; the best description of what
they have in mind can be found in Christopher
Blizzard's weblog. The project claims to want to bring in outside
developers, and to make them "feel that they are equals." Given all that
the directory server hackers want to do, they will almost certainly need
some help from outside. Consider this:
One of our larger technical objectives - as I've said - is to
integrate with as much software as possible. This means that when
possible we're a configuration store for every application on a
system. Every user pref. Every service on your machine can store
its configuration in one of these servers. Have you ever had the
vision of dropping a machine on a network and having it come up,
self-install, and just start working? We'd like to see it too
because it offers compelling cost of ownership argument that we
think free software is in a unique position to provide. But it
requires participation from the larger software development
community. This means you and your project.
To some readers, this vision sounds like the Windows registry - except that
it's a nightmare, monster central registry for thousands of users. The
"everything lives in the directory server" approach clearly will not be for
everyone. But, for people wanting to create a single, integrated
environment across a large organization, this vision will have some
appeal. It is truly a view of the network as a single, large computer,
with a minimum of boundaries. It promises to reduce the cost of
administering large numbers of systems. One can see why Red Hat thinks it needs to
go in this direction to remain competitive in the future.
High-end directory servers have, so far, been the domain of expensive,
proprietary software. The freeing of the Netscape server, if handled well,
could bring an end to that era. So this move by Red Hat is important, and
deserving of support. High-quality free infrastructure is a good thing.
Comments (24 posted)
Over the years, the proliferation of news sites, weblogs and other sites
with daily updates has made it nearly impossible for the average user to
visit every site of interest in a timely fashion. For those of us who want
or need to keep informed on a variety of topics, RSS, RDF and Atom feeds
have become a nearly indispensable tool to skim the headlines for many
sites at once without having to spend more than an hour per day clicking
through bookmarks. However, this raises the question of how to manage
news feeds effectively.
There are a fair number of RSS aggregator projects on Freshmeat, but we
decided to limit our scope to applications that are fairly mature, have
been updated recently (many RSS aggregator projects listed on Freshmeat
have not been updated in years) and run on the desktop. In particular, we
were looking for aggregators that handle a large number of feeds, make it
easy to manage feeds and integrate well with the Linux desktop and the
average user's workflow.
For some time now, this writer has used the Bloglines service to browse RSS
feeds. For this article, the feed list from Bloglines, containing about 130
RSS/RDF and Atom feeds, was exported as an OPML file and imported that
into each of the aggregators to see how they performed.
The first aggregator we'll look at is RSSOwl. This aggregator is written in
Java, using the SWT graphic library. RSSOwl has a fairly flexible
interface, and opens up tabs for each new feed that the user opens from the
list of "favorites."
There are a few interesting features in RSSOwl. First, RSSOwl has an export
feature, which can be used to export a feed or individual article to PDF,
Rich Text (RTF) or HTML. This might be handy for saving feeds and entries
for later. RSSOwl also supports AmphetaRate, a
centralized ratings service for rating articles found in news feeds.
Oddly, it seems to display feeds as plain text rather than rendering the
HTML. We're not sure if this is a glitch in RSSOwl or if we missed a step
in setting it up. Otherwise, RSSOwl's performance was very good, and it
handled a large number of feeds without any problems.
aggregator is unique in this list, because it's not a graphical
application. Snownews is a console-based feed-reader that uses ncurses, and
is a fairly straightforward application with few frills.
Snownews does not support OPML directly, but there is an "opml2snow" script
that comes with Snownews to convert OPML into the format that Snownews
likes. It's a little more of a hassle than the easy-import offered by other
readers, but it gets the job done. Snownews displays headlines and feeds
inline. To follow the feed URL, one must use an external browser. It works
fairly well with GUI browsers, but works best (at least in this writer's
opinion) with a text-mode browser like w3m or Lynx.
It's probably not going to be the first choice for most users, but those
who prefer browsing in w3m or other text-mode browsers should definitely
check it out.
One reader that seems to be getting a lot of attention at the moment is the
Linux Feed Reader, Liferea. This is a
nicely-designed newsreader that's easy to use. It imported our OPML file
with no problems, and gives the user the option of rendering HTML with
Mozilla or GtkHTML2. It spawns an external browser for full articles rather
than displaying them within the Liferea window. This works well if you
prefer to browse content in Firefox, Epiphany or another browser, but we
would like it if Liferea would give the option of displaying the entire
article inside Liferea itself.
One interesting feature with Liferea is the ability to create a new feed
from a Feedster search. This can be
quite handy if you're interested in finding feeds on a specific topic from
a variety of sources.
If one wishes to be alerted, or interrupted, with updates from subscribed
feeds, Liferea has a feature that will pop up a notification window at
regular intervals with new headlines. We enabled this feature briefly, but
turned it off after an hour or so, finding it quite distracting.
We also found Liferea to be a bit less than stable, at least the 0.9.0
release that is available in Ubuntu Hoary. Liferea crashed a few times when
doing something as simple as deleting a feed. Overall, its performance was
quite good, and the interface is excellent -- but it might need to
stabilize a bit before being our first choice of the available aggregators.
Blam is a aggregator
written in C# using Mono and GTK#. It's a little more basic than Liferea or
Snownews, but it serves well as a basic newsreader. Headlines and summaries
are displayed within Blam, but it requires an internal browser to follow
At first, Blam would not import the OPML from Bloglines. We tried
subscribing a few feeds manually and then exporting Blam's list to OPML to
find out what was different. The difference was that Bloglines uses "title"
for the name of each feed, and Blam expects "text" -- after doing a quick
search and replace in Vim, changing "title" to "text," Blam imported the
list of feeds just fine.
Blam is a good choice for users who want a very basic newsreader that's
fast and light.
KDE users are probably already familiar with Akregator. This reader uses
KHTML to display full articles in tabs within the Akregator interface, at
least by default. Akregator can also be configured to use an external
browser for those who prefer Firefox or another browser to
For users who prefer Konqueror for Web browsing, Akregator is an excellent
choice. Konqueror auto-discovers feeds on pages, and makes it easy to add
those feed subscriptions to Akregator. Akregator has fewer frills than
Liferea or RSSOwl, but it integrates very well with KDE and performs well.
Firefox and Thunderbird
We should also mention Firefox and Thunderbird. While not dedicated
aggregators, both applications allow users to read and manage
news feeds. However, they lack a number of features that many users would
want, at least natively. The advantage of using Firefox as an aggregator is
that Firefox makes it very easy to create a "Live Bookmark" to subscribe to
feeds, when the browser discovers the feed in a page.
If Firefox doesn't detect the feed, that complicates things
greatly. Firefox supports adding a bookmark manually, but does not support
adding a feed manually. The Live Bookmark also doesn't allow the user to
preview the content or full text, just the headlines from a feed. Firefox
doesn't support importing OPML files natively, so users with large
subscription lists would have to go through a lot of work to re-subscribe
to sites using Firefox.
Of course, it is possible to extend Firefox's capabilities with
extensions. We tried the Sage
extension with Firefox, and were quite pleased with it. The Sage extension
adds a sidebar to Firefox much like the Bookmarks and History
sidebars. There are two panes in the sidebar, a list of subscriptions and
lower pane that lists headlines from the selected feed.
The integration with Firefox makes it a convenient aggregator for those of
us who use Firefox exclusively or extensively. Sage had no problem
importing the OPML list exported from Bloglines, and its performance was
quite acceptable. There are a number of other news
reading extensions for Firefox for those who are interested.
Thunderbird, by itself, is also limited in its abilities to import and
manage feeds. For users who spend a lot of time in their e-mail client, and
who have a fairly limited number of feeds, it would work well -- but this
writer would not like to have to import 100 or more feeds using the "Manage
Subscription" dialog for Thunderbird. The advantage to using Thunderbird
for feeds is the ability to mail links from subscribed feeds.
We found the Forumzilla extension
for Thunderbird, which adds OPML import and other features to
Thunderbird. Unfortunately, it consistently crashed Thunderbird when trying
to import the OPML exported from Bloglines.
After spending time with each of these aggregators, this writer prefers
Liferea and Sage, though any of the aggregators would do in a pinch. Given
the variety and maturity of the various options, Linux users should not
have much trouble finding an aggregator that works well for them.
Comments (11 posted)
When Black Duck Software
first made available its software compliance tool, ProtextIP, about a
year ago, the typical first reaction was to view it as a response to
Now there is a second such product, Palamida's IP Amplifier, and it's
clear there is a market for such products. Cisco, for one, has just signed
on with Palamida. Who really needs products like this, and why? And is
there a difference between them?
Who Needs Software Compliance Tools?
Now that Free and Open Source software has hit the mainstream of the
enterprise, businesses need to be certain that they are not taking on
legal liabilities with the code. There are many licenses, and making
sure a company is abiding by them all is complex. That's one reason you
are hearing so many voices calling for simplifying and settling on fewer
licenses. But it goes deeper than that.
"Everyone who distributes software should know what goes into it," attorney
Lawrence Rosen explains. "And almost everyone who distributes software
wants to comply with the relevant licenses. Most reputable software-based
businesses recognize that playing fast-and-loose with copyright claims
While most businesses today are pleased to adopt and incorporate open
source products into their products and services, they want to know what
licenses apply so that they can comply with the terms.
"That's what Black Duck and Palamida make possible," Rosen adds. "A
distributor or user can know what open source software is in its own
software and act accordingly, early in the cycle. It's now possible to
evaluate license compatibility for specific component sets and plan
appropriate combinations for use in products to be developed."
Unfortunately, developers sometimes use GPL code (or other licensed FOSS
code) without telling management, thinking it's public domain. It
isn't. And with outsourcing, sometimes developers are in other countries
that may have more relaxed views on copyright and this can cause problems.
So when developers let things happen they shouldn't (such as making
copies or derivative works), companies have an automated way to catch
some of that and react appropriately before much bigger problems can
Software practices are also changing. Application development today is
becoming more like an assembly line, more a matter of assembling bits
of code from open source projects and from outsourced firms and
incorporating them into proprietary products than handcrafting 100%
custom software. This isn't a bad thing, because it makes it possible to
avoid having to reinvent the wheel -- one of the advantages of Open Source
-- but it also means that checking on license terms and making sure you
are complying with them all is vital to the process.
And there is no doubt that enforcement of GPL violations is increasing,
as Fortinet learned recently when a German court banned their
U.K. subsidiary from further distribution of their firewall and antivirus
products until they complied with the GPL, which they promptly did.
Then there is the Sarbanes-Oxley Act [PDF], and its
requirements for IT audits.
"The SECs new rules on heightened corporate responsibility for public
company reporting known as Sarbanes-Oxley require public companies to
abide by internal procedures that are sufficient to provide reasonable
assurance that the financial and non-financial information required to be
disclosed in its periodic and current reports is accurate," says Karen
Copenhaver, executive vice president and general counsel for Black Duck
"Specifically, Sarbanes creates two new corporate governance requirements:
assessment of internal controls over financial reporting (required by
section 404 of the Act), and heightened corporate responsibility for
financial reports (required by section 302 of the Act). It would be hard
to overestimate the burden that compliance with these new rules has placed
on public companies in the first few years since their enactment.
"Even before Sarbanes, public companies were required to address
intellectual property matters in their current and periodic reports. A
reporting company traditionally discloses the importance of its
intellectual property assets to the companys business and any third-party
intellectual property encumbrances on the companys ability to conduct its
business. To the extent that a failure to identify or comply with third
party license obligations has an effect on the accuracy of any of this
information, public companies will be concerned about compliance with
their obligations under Sarbanes."
Obviously, Sarbanes-Oxley has upped the ante considerably. But most
businesses and developers want to do the right thing anyway, apart from
outside pressures. The tools don't set policy for a company, but they
surely make it easier to make sure policies are observed.
What Do the Tools Offer?
Before automated software compliance tools were available, due diligence
in checking software for infringing code was done by assigning the tedious
task to senior software programmers in the company, who, together with
lawyers laboriously looked through the code. The problem with such a
system, aside from the time it required and the drudgery, is that no one
person knows all the Free and Open Source projects available by sight, let
alone all the proprietary products you are not allowed to see without
complex legal arrangements.
Automated systems are an obvious answer. What they provide is a
Google-like collection of code. They've collected it all for you. Both
tools scan for copyright infringement and can spot more than verbatim
matches. But they do more than scan.
Palamida says its IP Amplifier product automatically detects, manages and
reports on the third party, commercial and open source components that may
exist in their software code base. It consists of two key modules -- the
Compliance Library and the Detector. Using an automated collection system,
the Compliance Library contains billions of source code snippets and
millions of files of the most commonly used open source projects found in
Palamida: "The Palamida IP Amplifier uses three different types of
technologies to automate detection, source code fingerprinting, file
digest matching, and for Java files, namespace matching. This means the
software is able to conduct both source code and binary code analysis. So
for companies whose developers download whole libraries, compiled code,
XML files, icons, text files, and include those resources into their code
base, the software will still detect their usage even though their source
code is not available and even if we do not have the components listed in
Next, there is a "layer of analysis that is beyond just code matching for
reduction of false positives. We call this technology CodeRank.
CodeRank looks at the code matches and evaluates the results on
multiple levels, including uniqueness, coverage and clustering. How unique
is that match to what is in the Palamida database? How much of a customer
file matches a file in Palamidas database? How dense are the matches
do they look like a continuous cut and paste or does it look like two
engineers coded against the same API?"
After their software evaluates the code matches, Palamida assigns a
CodeRank number to the matches; the higher the CodeRank number the higher
the chances of copying. In the scan results, users will see a list of all
code that has matches and a list of all the third party products that they
most likely came from, with the most likely on top.
Reports identify all components that include open source and list their
licenses, text and license information, in addition to the CodeRank. All
the information and data is exportable in XML data format, allowing users
to create custom reports, as well as via HTML reports.
Black Duck too offers a great deal more than just code scanning. Black
Duck's Copenhaver: "We do more than just scan code. Our product provides
a full suite of services covering project planning, code analysis and
detection, license analysis and management, auditing and archival
capabilities for the complete life cycle of software projects.
"From an open source perspective," Coperhaver adds, "we help developers
manage the origins and obligations of code that they use so they can meet
the expectations of the industry and community. But everything we do works
for both open source and proprietary or commercial code. Users can add
code prints and licenses into the system to manage their internal
proprietary code along with open source.
"Our product helps people manage the introduction of licensed materials
into their code bases, understand the obligations associated with that
code (and combinations of components from different sources), provide an
environment for controlled remediation of issues that arise and create an
archivable record of the actions that were taken by the team along the
way. Our products are designed to bring together developers, lawyers and
business decision makers into a collaborative environment."
Black Duck offers an analysis 'engine' that processes licenses at a
detailed level and alerts users to license conflicts and obligations of
both software source and binary components and their combinations. The
ProtexIP Knowledgebase contains detailed breakdowns of 500+ software
licenses for automated comparison of license terms and notification of
collective obligations, and the data is remotely updated frequently with
new licenses as they come to market. It recently added what they call
Custom Code Prints, which gives ProtextIP support for proprietary source
Palmida claims a database of 40,000 of the most commonly used OSS projects
and their associated licenses, monitoring more than 38 million open
source files and billions of source code snippets. The Knowledge Base also
contains all pertinent information regarding the open source projects:
name, version number, project name, licensor, licensor information (when
available), license, license text, and project URL, all using an
automated collection toolset that incorporates information on all the new
projects released on the major OSS repositories for real time updates.
The Palamida database takes up less than 10 Gb disk space, thanks to a
compression algorithm, and it's all kept on a customer's own servers,
behind their firewall. Its code is written in Java. IP Amplifier
can be configured to search daily or weekly and has a set of configuration
tools to integrate it into build systems.
Are There Any Differences?
The biggest differentiator is cost. IP Amplifier 3.0 is licensed on an
annual subscription basis, for unlimited number of users, at prices that
begin at $50,000 and go up to $250,000 per year, depending on the
customer's development environment. There is a 30-day Free Trial offer.
Black Duck now offers two options. You can pay an annual licensing fee for
its multiuser ProtextIP product, at $25,000 per year, and then add
additional charges based on the amount of code you have. Or, you can use
their new hosted ProtextIP/OnDemand product, an online system for a
single user, single project, 90-day sessions, for which you pay based on
the amount of code you wish to scan. It costs $3,000 for 10 MB of code and
costs scale up to $25,000 for 100 MBs. A company thinking of acquiring
another might wish to use the online tool, rather than purchase more
Both products still require human analysis, naturally. There can be false
matches, if two independent developers happen to write software that is
very much the same, even if there has been no copying, just because there
are only so many ways of writing the same instruction. Both tools
provide not only identical matches but also flag similarities in your
source code to others' programs that are worth your further investigation
and list issues for review. It's important to realize, however, that
the tools scan and analyze copyright issues and licensing issues, not
patent infringement. That is an entirely separate ballgame.
But for what they are designed to do, unquestionably they have
simplified, organized, and improved the due diligence process.
Comments (12 posted)
Page editor: Jonathan Corbet
Inside this week's LWN.net Weekly Edition
- Security: A look at Tor; New vulnerabilities in apache, gxine, ImageMagick, and mailutils.
- Kernel: Time to remove LSM?; Negative file offsets; The realtime preemption debate begins.
- Distributions: KANOTIX - The Knoppix Improved; New: Pentoo, Navyn OS
- Development: Anyterm: A Terminal Anywhere,
new versions of Mailman, popa3d, Knettools, OpenSSH, Twisted,
SSL-Explorer, Caravel CMS, PythonCAD, Eman, KDE, mnemo, XCircuit,
HLA Adventure, OpenEMR, BEAST/BSE, Mozilla Deer Park, SBCL,
- Press: Greg K-H on Kernel development, Crackers target Phishing sites,
Stallman on Nokia's patent grant, PalmSource promotes Linux, the Rexx
scripting language, UML tools, EU funds open-source.
- Announcements: Nokia Donates to GNOME Foundation, analogs of Windows software in Linux,
Open source and the commoditization of software, Debian Day at LinuxTag 2005,
Europython 2005 update, Fedora Talk at USC, IEEE Web Services CFP,
Embedded Technology 2005, Yokohama.
- Letters: The gift of volunteering; Brooks v. Lyons.